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Irrigation Troubleshooting:. What does it take to be an “Irrigation Troubleshooter”?. An Electrician A Plumber An Electronics Technician An Irrigation Technician A Laborer ALL OF THE ABOVE. The 7 components of an irrigation system that we need to be concerned with:. • Water Supply

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Irrigation troubleshooting
Irrigation Troubleshooting:


What does it take to be an irrigation troubleshooter

What does it take to be an “Irrigation Troubleshooter”?

An Electrician

A Plumber

An Electronics Technician

An Irrigation Technician

A Laborer

ALL OF THE ABOVE


The 7 components of an irrigation system that we need to be concerned with
The 7 components of an irrigation system that we need to be concerned with:

• Water Supply

• Backflow Preventer

• Main Line

• Electric Valves

• Lateral Lines

• Heads

• Controller



Ask questions

What is malfunctioning? problem, what do you do?

Is it the controller, valves, heads, sensors, etc.?

Has anyone been working in the area other than you?

Have there been any storms lately?

Can you manually turn on the system?

Has the pressure been reduced in the area?

Etc.

Ask Questions


Is the problem problem, what do you do?

Electrical

or

Hydraulic?

There are two main divisions of an irrigation system. This will be the first question of your Troubleshooting Plan.


Electrical troubleshooting

Electrical Troubleshooting problem, what do you do?


Two wire technology for large systems
Two-wire technology for large systems problem, what do you do?

Traditional systems require at least one wire per valve, plus common ground wires.


Two Wire problem, what do you do?

Direct Burial Connectors

DBY/DBR- 30v Max

DBR/Y 600v Max

DBY/DBR -6 600v Max


Cut us some slack
Cut us some slack… problem, what do you do?

  • 5 feet slack wire, per splice

    • At decoders, and at T splices

  • Always in a valve box

  • Stake decoder upside down (recommended)

  • Up to 150 feet from decoder to solenoid (shorter is better)


Electrical terminology

Alternating current (AC) problem, what do you do? – Standard household current. Most irrigation systems use AC current.

Amperage (AMPS) – Quantitative measurement of flow of electricity, similar to Gallons per Minute in irrigation.

Circuit – In irrigation terms, the electrical wiring path from the station output terminal to and through the solenoid back to the common terminal.

Connection – Connection of one wire with one or more wires inside of an approved wire nut or other connecting device.

Direct Current (DC) – Directional flowing electricity: i.e. current flowing from the positive terminal of a battery through a device and back to the negative terminal.

Field Wiring – the wiring between the controller and any device/valve installed in-ground.

Ground – In electricity, it is always earth ground

Multimeter (Volt OHM-Meter) – Digital or analog testing device for measuring electricity’s characteristics (voltage, amperage, resistance).

Electrical Terminology


Electrical terminology1

OHMS/Resistance problem, what do you do? – The resistance encountered by electricity in wiring or devices on a circuit, similar to friction loss in irrigation terms.

Open Circuit – Term given to a circuit when the pathway for electricity has been severed or is not completed.

Primary Side – The side of the transformer that is connected to the 120vac supply.

Secondary Side – In the irrigation industry, it is the 24vac output side of the transformer.

Short Circuit – Term given to a circuit where electricity bypasses the intended and goes directly from the hot to the common wire.

Short To Ground – the electricity has a direct path from the wire through the insulation to ground.

Solenoid – an electrical device on valves that when electrified creates a magnetic field that pulls a metallic plunger.

Electrical Terminology


Electrical terminology2

Terminal Strips problem, what do you do? – A collection of terminals numbered to differentiate zones.

Terminals – The connecting device on the panel of the controller that the field wires are attached into. There are station output terminals and common terminals.

Voltage (VOLTS) – Quantitative measurement of the power of electricity, similar to water pressure (PSI).

Zone – Irrigation term used to differentiate one circuit from another: i.e. zone 5 or zone 12.

Zone Wire VS. Common Wire – The zone wire is the wire connecting a station output terminal on a controller to a solenoid or device. The common wire is the wire connecting the solenoid or device to the common terminal.

Electrical Terminology


Digital multimeter volt ohm meter
Digital Multimeter (Volt-ohm meter) problem, what do you do?


Using the multimeter

Know what you are measuring problem, what do you do?

Volts……AC or DC voltage?

Amps

Ohms

Set the meter to the proper scale

BE SAFE! Call a certified electrician if you

watch “Home Improvement” regularly

Using The Multimeter


Voltage

Controller power specifications problem, what do you do?

120 VAC ± 10% (108-132 VAC)

Does my controller require a dedicated breaker?

If a high amperage device like an irrigation pump is powered on the same branch circuit as the controller, the answer might be--YES.

Why? The high amperage demand of the pump causes a severe drop in voltage.

Voltage


Measure transformer voltage
Measure Transformer Voltage problem, what do you do?


Current

Must be measured in-circuit problem, what do you do?

120 VAC supply

Controllers use approximately 0.25 amps

Add 0.12 amps for each solenoid

Refer to the manufacturer’s specifications

Current


Resistance

Most useful of all measurements in the field problem, what do you do?

Used to test for bad:

Solenoids

Field wiring

Transformers

Shorts to ground

Resistance


Resistance1

DO NOT MEASURE RESISTANCE WHILE THE POWER IS ON!! problem, what do you do?

Resistance


Resistance terms

Open Circuit problem, what do you do?

Think of an “open” drawbridge

Turning off the light switch at home = open

Indicates no connection

Station will not work

Short Circuit

The common wire is touching a station wire

Internal solenoid wires touch-- too soon

Result? The fuse or circuit breaker opens, or……

The diagnostic circuit breaker “skips” the station

Resistance Terms


Electrical troubleshooting summary
Electrical Troubleshooting problem, what do you do?Summary

  • Check the outlet that the controller is plugged into. Make sure it has 120 volts and that the outlet is not connected to a switch or is not part of a ground fault circuit.

  • Is the controller putting out 24 volts? Test the terminal strip with a multimeter to determine output voltage.

  • Is there continuity through the solenoid?


Electrical troubleshooting summary1

If not, then test the problem, what do you do?ohms on that station. A high reading (over 60 ohms) indicates an open circuit.

If the circuit is open, is the problem a solenoid or a cut wire? Go to that valve box, disconnect the solenoid from the valve wires. Take the ohm reading of the solenoid. If this reading is high, then replace the solenoid.

If the solenoid is normal, then we have a wiring issue. Here we will turn to specialized equipment for tracking wire.

Electrical TroubleshootingSummary


Common valve problems
Common Valve Problems problem, what do you do?

  • Check resistance on the solenoid.

  • Check to be sure the flow control is not all the way closed.

  • Check for trash inside the valve.

  • Check to make sure bleed tube is not clogged.


Solenoid resistance

Acceptable range: 20 - 60 ohms problem, what do you do?

More than 60 ohms is considered open

Less than 20 ohms is considered shorted

Solenoid Resistance


Solenoid ohm resistance values

Asco (Bermad/ClaVal) 14.4 ohms problem, what do you do?

Champion 21.7 ohms

Greenlawn 22.7 ohms

Griswold 21.1 ohms

Hardie/Irritrol 24.6 ohms

Hunter 29.7 ohms

Imperial ATTV 21.7 ohms

Nelson 22.2 ohms

Orbit 20.2 ohms

RainBird A series coil 28.5 ohms

RainBird B series coil 23.8 ohms

RainBird DV series 51.8 ohms

Superior 23.1 ohms

Toro 1” +/- 28 ohms

Toro ¾” +/- 23 ohms

Weathermatic 34.1 ohms

Solenoid Ohm Resistance Values


Electronic tracking equipment

Progressive Electronics 521 problem, what do you do?

508

Pulse toner

Station master

2003 Fault Finder

Electronic Tracking Equipment


Hydraulic troubleshooting

Hydraulic Troubleshooting problem, what do you do?


Hydraulic troubleshooting1

Pressure - 2 Kinds: problem, what do you do?

Static (Hydrostatic)

Dynamic (Hydrodynamic)

Check using a pressure

gauge on the backflow,

hosebib, and heads.

Hydraulic Troubleshooting


Hydraulic troubleshooting2

TIP – always begin at the beginning. problem, what do you do?

Start at the beginning of the water system. Make sure all irrigation water valves are open.

Hydraulic Troubleshooting


Hydraulic troubleshooting3
Hydraulic Troubleshooting problem, what do you do?

2. Is the backflow working properly?

  • Dual Check – you can’t

    tell by looking at it.

  • PVB – check the bonnet

    and poppet assembly

    for cracks or warpage.

    Also check the o-ring.

  • RPZ – look in both

    check valves for trash or cracks.

    Check the o-rings.

    Check the overflow valve.


Hydraulic troubleshooting4

Is the mainline holding water pressure? A pressure gauge comes in handy here.

Are the electric valves opening and closing properly? Obstructions around the diaphragm can cause problems. Check the flow control valve for proper opening position. Is it installed backwards?

Does the lateral pipe have any breaks or kinks in it? Could be trash from a previous (BAD) repair, tree roots, etc.

Hydraulic Troubleshooting


Hydraulic troubleshooting5

If there is no break in the pipe, the valves are operating properly, or there are no problems with the backflow preventer, and a sprinkler head is still not working properly; what would you do? Check the screen and/or nozzle in the sprinkler head first for clogging.

Sometimes rocks and debris can get stuck in the spiral elbow or the swing pipe gets kinked. You must dig up the head to get at these headaches.

Finally, when all is checked including last head pressure, the only answer may be in the design itself. Make sure that the zone requirements do not exceed the water source.

Hydraulic Troubleshooting


Tools needed to troubleshoot

Tools Needed to Troubleshoot properly, or there are no problems with the backflow preventer, and a sprinkler head is still not working properly; what would you do? Check the screen and/or nozzle in the sprinkler head first for clogging.

A multimeter

A 4in1 screwdriver

12” channelock pliers

A pressure gauge


Irrigation troubleshooting1

Irrigation Troubleshooting properly, or there are no problems with the backflow preventer, and a sprinkler head is still not working properly; what would you do? Check the screen and/or nozzle in the sprinkler head first for clogging.

Any Questions?


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