a testbed for student research and design of control moment gyroscopes for robotic applications
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A TESTBED FOR STUDENT RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF CONTROL-MOMENT GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS . Albert Soto, Daniel Brown, Mason Peck. ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition – Austin, Texas June 15, 2009. Space Systems Design Studio at Cornell University. Overview. Experimental Learning

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a testbed for student research and design of control moment gyroscopes for robotic applications

A TESTBED FOR STUDENT RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF CONTROL-MOMENT GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

Albert Soto,

Daniel Brown, Mason Peck

ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition – Austin, Texas

June 15, 2009

Space Systems Design Studio at Cornell University

overview
Overview
  • Experimental Learning
  • Space-Robotics
  • Drive Design
  • Momentum Actuators
  • Reactionless Robotics
  • Specifications & Design
  • Student Benefits

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

experimental learning
Experimental Learning
  • Fundamentals of Professionals
  • Research Project-Oriented Learning
    • Teamwork
    • Self-confidence
    • Opportunity to apply coursework
    • Experience
    • Visualize professional career
    • Retention in engineering
  • Limiting Factors of Aerospace Research
    • Infrequent microgravity flight trips
    • Risks in spaceflight launch
    • Limited resources

NASA Microgravity Research Aircraft

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

space robotics
Space-Robotics
  • Robotic Arm Technology
    • Satellite assembly
    • Massive cargo relocation
    • Spacecraft repair

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

actuator design
Actuator Design
  • What is a Drive Design?
  • Direct Drives
    • Conventional actuators for robotic

arm joints

  • Control-Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs)
    • Traditional spacecraft attitude control
  • CMGs vs. Direct Drives
    • Reactionless actuation
    • Energy advantage?

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

momentum actuators
Momentum Actuators
  • Control-Moment Gyroscope (CMG)
    • Constant-speed rotor
    • Gimbal the rotor about g-axis to change angular-momentum vector h
    • 100x less power than RWAs1,2
    • CMGs produce greater torque for less energy

tout

h1

h2

  • Comparison of CMGs to direct drive needed to bring CMGs into robotics

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

  • Carpenter, Peck, 2008
  • Van Riper, Liden, 1971
slide7

Reactionless Robotics

  • Actuator reaction torques
  • Inertial reaction forces
    • From D’Alembert’s principle
  • Benefits of CMGs
    • Reduce disturbances and low frequency vibrations
    • Isolate subsystems
    • Increased agility of robot
    • More power efficient than RWAs1,2

tCMG

tj

-tj

-R1

R1

-R1

R1

  • Carpenter, Peck, 2008
  • Van Riper, Liden, 1971

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

7

reactionless robotics in space
Reactionless Robotics in Space
  • Robotic manipulators
    • Space construction and repair
  • Pointing tasks
    • Independently orient cameras, sensors, transmitters, solar panels, etc.
  • Reduced propellant use in attitude control
    • Reduce launch mass
    • Extend mission life

DARPA SUMO spacecraft & Cornell CMG team

Efficient use of limited spacecraft power

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

power requirements
Power Requirements
  • Power equations of output torques:
    • in terms of the joint torques and velocities

Power equations do not equal!

  • CMG power has not previously been compared to direct drive for robotics

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

testbed specifications
Testbed Specifications
  • Planar two-link robot
    • +/- 90 deg range
  • Dually actuated
    • CMGs from robot arm
    • DC motors at joints
  • Air bearing levitation
  • Wireless control/data acquisition
  • Expandable to 3-link robot
  • Removable base link

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

the scissored pair cmg configuration
The Scissored-Pair CMG Configuration

DC Motor

Gear

hr1+hr2

hr1

f

-f

tC2

tC1

CMG

tC1+tC2

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

benefits
Benefits
  • Student introduction to:
    • Reactionless robotics
    • Momentum actuators
    • Dynamics of CMGs
    • Research
    • Ground testing of space-systems
    • Mechanical design and fabrication
  • Advances faculty and graduate students
    • New experimental hardware
    • Design groups

Experience for excellence in engineering

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

future possibilities
Future Possibilities
  • Additional Focuses:
    • Optimizing CMG size
    • Real-time data collection and analyses
    • Control laws for N-link robotic arm

Single link

Two links

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Cornell Leadership Alliance
  • Space Systems Design Studio
    • Dr. Michele Carpenter
  • Cornell 2007 CMG team
    • Mike Nagele
    • Nicole Monahan

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

momentum actuators16
Momentum Actuators
  • CMGs are part of a larger class of actuators
  • Internal momentum change provides output torque
  • A spinning body resists change
    • Magnitude or direction of spin
  • Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA)
    • Rotor fixed to spacecraft
    • Vary rotor speed magnitude
    • Large energy change of rotor

h2

h1

tout

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

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