A testbed for student research and design of control moment gyroscopes for robotic applications
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A TESTBED FOR STUDENT RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF CONTROL-MOMENT GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS . Albert Soto, Daniel Brown, Mason Peck. ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition – Austin, Texas June 15, 2009. Space Systems Design Studio at Cornell University. Overview. Experimental Learning

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A testbed for student research and design of control moment gyroscopes for robotic applications l.jpg

A TESTBED FOR STUDENT RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF CONTROL-MOMENT GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

Albert Soto,

Daniel Brown, Mason Peck

ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition – Austin, Texas

June 15, 2009

Space Systems Design Studio at Cornell University


Overview l.jpg
Overview GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Experimental Learning

  • Space-Robotics

  • Drive Design

  • Momentum Actuators

  • Reactionless Robotics

  • Specifications & Design

  • Student Benefits

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Experimental learning l.jpg
Experimental Learning GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Fundamentals of Professionals

  • Research Project-Oriented Learning

    • Teamwork

    • Self-confidence

    • Opportunity to apply coursework

    • Experience

    • Visualize professional career

    • Retention in engineering

  • Limiting Factors of Aerospace Research

    • Infrequent microgravity flight trips

    • Risks in spaceflight launch

    • Limited resources

NASA Microgravity Research Aircraft

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Space robotics l.jpg
Space-Robotics GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Robotic Arm Technology

    • Satellite assembly

    • Massive cargo relocation

    • Spacecraft repair

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Actuator design l.jpg
Actuator Design GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • What is a Drive Design?

  • Direct Drives

    • Conventional actuators for robotic

      arm joints

  • Control-Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs)

    • Traditional spacecraft attitude control

  • CMGs vs. Direct Drives

    • Reactionless actuation

    • Energy advantage?

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Momentum actuators l.jpg
Momentum Actuators GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Control-Moment Gyroscope (CMG)

    • Constant-speed rotor

    • Gimbal the rotor about g-axis to change angular-momentum vector h

    • 100x less power than RWAs1,2

    • CMGs produce greater torque for less energy

tout

h1

h2

  • Comparison of CMGs to direct drive needed to bring CMGs into robotics

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

  • Carpenter, Peck, 2008

  • Van Riper, Liden, 1971


Slide7 l.jpg

Reactionless Robotics GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Actuator reaction torques

  • Inertial reaction forces

    • From D’Alembert’s principle

  • Benefits of CMGs

    • Reduce disturbances and low frequency vibrations

    • Isolate subsystems

    • Increased agility of robot

    • More power efficient than RWAs1,2

tCMG

tj

-tj

-R1

R1

-R1

R1

  • Carpenter, Peck, 2008

  • Van Riper, Liden, 1971

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009

7


Reactionless robotics in space l.jpg
Reactionless Robotics in Space GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Robotic manipulators

    • Space construction and repair

  • Pointing tasks

    • Independently orient cameras, sensors, transmitters, solar panels, etc.

  • Reduced propellant use in attitude control

    • Reduce launch mass

    • Extend mission life

DARPA SUMO spacecraft & Cornell CMG team

Efficient use of limited spacecraft power

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Power requirements l.jpg
Power Requirements GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Power equations of output torques:

    • in terms of the joint torques and velocities

Power equations do not equal!

  • CMG power has not previously been compared to direct drive for robotics

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Testbed specifications l.jpg
Testbed Specifications GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Planar two-link robot

    • +/- 90 deg range

  • Dually actuated

    • CMGs from robot arm

    • DC motors at joints

  • Air bearing levitation

  • Wireless control/data acquisition

  • Expandable to 3-link robot

  • Removable base link

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


The scissored pair cmg configuration l.jpg
The Scissored-Pair CMG Configuration GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

DC Motor

Gear

hr1+hr2

hr1

f

-f

tC2

tC1

CMG

tC1+tC2

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Benefits l.jpg
Benefits GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Student introduction to:

    • Reactionless robotics

    • Momentum actuators

    • Dynamics of CMGs

    • Research

    • Ground testing of space-systems

    • Mechanical design and fabrication

  • Advances faculty and graduate students

    • New experimental hardware

    • Design groups

Experience for excellence in engineering

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


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Future Possibilities GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Additional Focuses:

    • Optimizing CMG size

    • Real-time data collection and analyses

    • Control laws for N-link robotic arm

Single link

Two links

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


Slide14 l.jpg

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

June 2009


Acknowledgements l.jpg
Acknowledgements GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • Cornell Leadership Alliance

  • Space Systems Design Studio

    • Dr. Michele Carpenter

  • Cornell 2007 CMG team

    • Mike Nagele

    • Nicole Monahan

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


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Momentum Actuators GYROSCOPES FOR ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS

  • CMGs are part of a larger class of actuators

  • Internal momentum change provides output torque

  • A spinning body resists change

    • Magnitude or direction of spin

  • Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA)

    • Rotor fixed to spacecraft

    • Vary rotor speed magnitude

    • Large energy change of rotor

h2

h1

tout

Space Systems Design Studio ASEE

June 2009


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