Psychoanalytical theory:   Sigmund Freud 1856-1939:

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Anna O. Joseph Breuer's patient from 1880 through 1882 who was diagnosed with hysteria disorder), ad symptoms that appeared to be physical, but were not. ?Dr. Breuer's patient was a girl of twenty-one, of high intellectual gifts. Her illness lasted for over two years, and in the course of it she

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Psychoanalytical theory: Sigmund Freud 1856-1939:

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1. Psychoanalytical theory:   Sigmund Freud (1856-1939):

2. Anna O Joseph Breuer's patient from 1880 through 1882 who was diagnosed with hysteria disorder), ad symptoms that appeared to be physical, but were not. “Dr. Breuer's patient was a girl of twenty-one, of high intellectual gifts. Her illness lasted for over two years, and in the course of it she developed a series of physical and  psychological disturbances which decidedly deserved to be taken seriously. She suffered from a rigid paralysis, accompanied by loss of sensation, of both extremities on the  right side of her body; and the same trouble from time to time affected her on her left side. Her eye movements were disturbed and her power of vision was subject to numerous  restrictions. She had difficulties over the posture of her head; she had a severe nervous cough. She had an aversion to taking nourishment, and on one occasion she was for  several weeks unable to drink in spite of a tormenting thirst. Her powers of speech were reduced, even to the point of her being unable to speak or  understand her native language. Finally, she was subject to conditions of 'absence',(1) of confusion, of delirium, and of alteration of her whole personality, to which we shall have presently to turn our attention.”

3. Anna would sink into states of what Breuer called "spontaneous hypnosis," or what Anna herself called "clouds.“, where she would talk; When she awoke she felt better and Anna called these episodes "chimney sweeping" and "the talking cure." Breuer called this catharsis, from the Greek word for cleansing. According to Freud, Breuer recognized that she had fallen in love with him, and that he was falling in love with her.  Plus, she was telling everyone she was pregnant with his child. You might say she wanted it so badly that her mind told her body it was true, and she developed an hysterical pregnancy. Breuer, a married man in a Victorian era, abruptly ended their sessions together, and lost all interest in hysteria. Later, she became a well-respected and active figure -- the first social worker in Germany -- under her true name, Bertha Pappenheim. She died in 1936.

4. Freud started with the basic premise that if the problems were caused by abnormalities in the body, they must originate from abnormalities of the “mind” (psyche) He suggested the normal human mind was made up of three levels: Conscious: what you are aware of at any particular moment, your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, feelings Preconscious: subjective material that can easily be brought into conscious awareness but of which you are not aware most of the time Unconscious: thoughts, feelings, and motivations of which we are completely unaware Behavior originates from the unconscious

5. THE UNCONSCIOUS Id: made up of unconscious psychic energy that works to satisfy basic physiological needs - operates based on the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification of needs - two most influential Id impulses: sex and aggression “ Analyse any human emotion, no matter how far it may be removed from the sphere of sex, and you are sure to discover somewhere the primal impulse, to which life owes its perpetuation. ... The primitive stages can always be re-established; the primitive mind is, in the fullest meaning of the word, imperishable.” (Sigmund Freud, 1915).

6. “Mans most disagreeable habits and idiosyncrasies, his deceit, his cowardice, his lack of reverence, are engendered by his incomplete adjustment to a complicated civilisation. It is the result of the conflict between our instincts and our culture. “ (Freud, 1927) Ego: part of personality that mediates the demands of the id, the superego and reality - The ego operates according to the Reality Principle, working our realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands, often compromising or postponing satisfaction. - The ego has no concept of right or wrong; something is good simply if it achieves its end of satisfying without causing harm to itself or to the id. Superego: part of the mind that houses morals/values - conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt or shame, reward us by feeling proud when we live up to it - ego ideal:  ultimate standard of behavior as a “good” member of society. The interaction of these three parts of ourselves is characterized by conflict

7. How Does our Mind Develop? The Psychosexual Stages of Development Freud felt our development was driven by sexual energy, or libido At particular points in the developmental process, a single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation, and is referred to as the erogenous zone The child's libido centers on behavior affecting the primary erogenous zone of his age; he cannot focus on the primary erogenous zone of the next stage without resolving the developmental conflict of the immediate one.

8. A child at a given stage of development has certain needs and demands- either frustration or overindulgence results in fixation, where the person gets “stuck” in that stage the method of obtaining satisfaction which characterized the stage one is fixated in will dominate and affect his adult personality. Oral stage: (birth-18 months): erogenous zone is the mouth and sucking and biting lead to satisfaction - frustration: pessimism, envy, suspicion and sarcasm - overindulgence: optimistic, gullible, and is full of admiration for others around him - primary conflict: “weaning” : deprives the child of the sensory pleasures of nursing and of the psychological pleasure of being cared for, mothered, and held

9. 2. Anal Stage (18-36 months): obsession with the erogenous zone of the anus and with the retention or expulsion of the feces- conflict with parents/societal pressures - anal expulsive character: messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant. - anal retentive character: neat, precise, orderly, careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, and passive-aggressive - The resolution of the anal stage permanently affects the individual propensities to possession and attitudes towards authority.

10. 3. Phallic Stage: (3- 6 years): The phallic stage is the setting for the greatest, most crucial sexual conflict in Freud's model of development. In this stage, the child's erogenous zone is the genital region. - The conflict, labeled the Oedipus complex (The Electra complex in women), involves the child's unconscious desire to possess the opposite-sexed parent and to eliminate the same-sexed one. - Employs the defense mechanism of identification, becoming as much like the same sex parents as possible, indoctrinating them into their appropriate sexual role in life. - A lasting trace of the Oedipal conflict is the superego - Fixation at the phallic stage develops a phallic character, who is reckless, resolute, self-assured, and narcissistic--excessively vain and proud. - failure to resolve the conflict can also cause a person to be afraid or incapable of close love; - Freud also postulated that fixation could be a root cause of homosexuality.

11. Latency Period: a period in which the sexual drive lies dormant. During the latency period, children pour this repressed libidal energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships. 4. Genital Stage: child's energy once again focuses on his genitals, interest turns to heterosexual relationships. The less energy the child has left invested in unresolved psychosexual developments, the greater his capacity will be to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex.

12. DEFENSE MECHANISMS Ego defenses are not necessarily unhealthy In facT, the lack of these defenses, or the inability to use them effectively can often lead to problems in life.  However, we sometimes employ the defenses at the wrong time or overuse them, which can be equally destructive. Repression: pulling into the unconscious i.e forgetting sexual abuse from your childhood due to the trauma and anxiety Suppression: pushing into the unconscious i.e trying to forget something that causes you anxiety Denial: arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn't exist i.e. denying that your physician's diagnosis of cancer is correct and seeking a second opinion Displacement: taking out impulses on a less threatening target i.e slamming a door instead of hitting as person, yelling at your spouse after an argument with your boss Intellectualization: avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects i.e. focusing on the details of a funeral as opposed to the sadness and grief

13. Projection: placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else i.e when losing an argument, you state "You're just Stupid;" homophobia Rationalization: supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason i.e stating that you were fired because you didn't kiss up to the boss, when the real reason was your poor performance Reaction Formation: taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety i.e. having a bias against a particular race or culture and then embracing that race or culture to the extreme Regression: returning to a previous stage of development i.e sitting in a corner and crying after hearing bad news; throwing a temper tantrum when you don't get your way Sublimation: acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way i.e sublimating your aggressive impulses toward a career as a boxer; becoming a surgeon because of your desire to cut; lifting weights to release 'pent up' energy

14. PSYCHOANALYSIS Psychoanalytic treatment explores how unconscious factors affect current relationships and patterns of thought, emotion and behavior. Treatment traces theses patterns back to their historical origins, considers how they have changed and developed over time, and helps the individual to cope better with the realities of their current life situation. The focus is on those aspects of inner life that are painful, embarrassing, or guilt-provoking. The analyst focuses on two basic goals: 1) Helping a patient gain insight into their own functioning 2) Finding ways to get Id impulses satisfied in socially acceptable ways

15. Insight into the Unconscious The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901): Freudian Slip: the unconscious slips out into consciousness Dream analysis: The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) "The royal road to the unconscious" Freud viewed dreams as a form of wish fulfillment Manifest content: what actually occurred in the dream- symbolic of what was actually expressed Latent content: the true meaning- "the royal road…." Projective tests The Rorschach/TAT : patient is administered ambiguous stimuli to which they will project meaning on to

17. Transference: as a distorted perception of an individual based on one’s past significant relationships. Patients might have love, hate, and erotic feelings for the therapist as a repetition of unresolved unconscious conflicts. Freud believed that transference was necessary for the treatment process, and working through the transference was an important source of personal growth Countertransference: the therapist’s inappropriate reaction to the patient. It was based in the therapist’s own resistance to the treatment and the enactment of personal needs.

18. SUBLIMATION Once one has insight into their own unconscious impulses, they can try and get them satisfied transformation of unwanted impulses into something less harmful, socially acceptable, or constructive behaviors Freud believed that the greatest achievements in civilization were due to the effective sublimation of our sexual and aggressive urges

19. THE IMPACT OF FREUD The unconscious Importance of childhood, parents, and stages Use of dreams in understanding ourselves Fact that Psychological Disorders can be treated Catharsis: Psychotherapy A lot of criticism! Use of case study/difficulty in empirical evaluation of his theories Overemphasis on sex and aggression-”Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar….” We (and many others) spend a LOT of time talking about him!

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