All Students Can Learn: Understanding and Educating English language Learners (ELLs
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All Students Can Learn: Understanding and Educating English language Learners (ELLs ). Goals. Setting the Context. Timelines and Importance of understanding and educating ELLs WHY?.

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All Students Can Learn: Understanding and Educating English language Learners (ELLs )

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All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

All Students Can Learn: Understanding and Educating English language Learners (ELLs)


Goals

Goals


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

Setting the Context

  • Timelines and Importance of understanding and educating ELLs

  • WHY?


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

  • Communities throughout the United States are experiencing rapid influxes of immigrant families in their neighborhoods and multilingual classrooms.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

Schools nationwide are facing significant challenges in understanding how to build on English language learners (ELLs) assets, support their learning, obtain resources needed, and support staff to meet the needs of children and families.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

The State of ELLs in Massachusetts


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

The Concept & Science of Second Language Acquisition


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

  • “Language not only expresses ideas and concepts but actually shapes thought.”

  • (Robert B. Moore, 1985)


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

LANGUAGE

Language is more than a means of communication between peopleLanguage contains the shared experiences, feelings, history and art of a culture. Honoring families means honoring their cultures and the languages they use to communicate.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

  • Language is social in nature; it is the vehicle that helps humans connect with and name their social world.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

FamilyThe family is a child’s first source of information and the primary model for how a child experiences relationships. The family is the constant in a child’s life.Each family is unique.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

Our home language is more than just sounds, gestures, and symbols; our home language is socially constructed to reflect the way our family and cultural community see the world and how they have chosen to interpret and name it.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

Culture is the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

A community is a shared network of formal (public school system…) and informal entities (extended family, social clubs, networks…). It usually has commonly understood geographic boundaries and, possibly, political boundaries as well (neighborhoods, counties…). In the most meaningful sense, communities, like families, are defined by its members.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

English Language Learners

English Language Learners are students who are in the process of acquiring English and have a first language other than English.

ESOL is generally used to mean English for Speakers of Other Languages.


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

BICS - Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills is the use of language for basic conversation and communication, and

CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency is the academic use of language


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

  • Research states:

  • All children are inherently driven to use their home language.

  • Linguists state that humans possess a strong biological drive to acquire language (Chomsky 1968) impelled by the social need to belong to their linguistic community (Vygotsky, 1986).


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WHAT EDUCATORS NEED TO KNOW


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

DO YOU KNOW THAT THERE IS MORE THAN ONE TYPE OF BILINGUAL CHILD?

  • Types of Bilingual Children

  • Sequential Bilinguals

  • Simultaneous Bilinguals


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

SIMULTANEOUS BILINGUALS

  • A child exposed to two languages or more before their first language develops

  • The process of acquisition is the same as that of monolinguals

  • Patterns of development are different than monolinguals

  • Rate of development and achievement of milestones is similar to monolinguals

  • * Note: the amount of exposure plays a role in both of these processes


All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

SEQUENTIAL BILINGUALS

  • Children exposed to another language after they’ve acquired the first or about 3 years old

  • This process is more widely known as second language acquisition

  • Children follow a different course than that of simultaneous bilingual children


  • All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Simultaneous Bilingualism

    Simultaneous bilinguals, who are children that have learned a second language while they the first, or before they had fully developed the first. These are kids that are generally exposed to a second language before the age

    of three.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Language Development in Sequential Bilinguals

    Early Stage (0-3) continued…

    The child is learning how the language sounds (phonology),

    how words are structured, and the rules for using words together in a sentence (morphology and syntax).


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Language Development in Sequential Bilinguals

    Early Stage (0-3)

    The child is learning how to use language in different situations

    (pragmatics). The child begins to learn to put together questions and sentences, to say no or refuse something (negations and questions).


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Language Development in Monolinguals

    Middle Phase (3-4)

    At this point the sound systems of both languages are pretty

    well developed and the child can distinguish between

    the two. By four years of age, the child can put together

    questions and negations well and is using longer sentences.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Language Development in Monolinguals

    Later Phase (5-6)

    Typically by six years of age, a child can communicate well in both languages. The child has mastered many of the sounds of both languages and has the ability to use more

    complex sentences in both.

    (www.preschoolenglishlearners.org, Lightobown and Spada, 2003, Genesee)


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Simultaneous Language Development

    • The most widely accepted model is a variation of the Dual Systems Model known as the Interactional Dual Systems Model of phonological representation (Paradis, 2001)

    • It suggests that bilingual students possess two separate phonological systems with mutual influence

    • Many findings show bilinguals using resources from both of their languages for efficiency in production while maintaining separation for language-specific elements


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    What is Typical of Simultaneous Bilinguals

    • Pattern of acquisition is similar to monolinguals

    • Some cross-linguistic effects; errors that are different than those that are made by monolingual students in either one of the languages

    • By preschool age 3-4 students are developing phonological skills match with each language.

    • There are clearly two different sound systems that they are learning

    • Shift in Patterns and Complexity

    • Greater amount of vocabulary in one language


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    What is Typical of Sequential Bilinguals

    • Interference or transference (ie. Adjective placement)

    • Silent Period

    • Code switching

    • Language Loss, subtractive bilingualism

    • students may experience a temporary language imbalance

    • Cultural patterns in language use influence a student’s production


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    These are general guidelines, it is important to remember that this will not apply to every single student


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Developmental Progression for Sequential Bilinguals


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Home Language Use- The child enters the new situation speaking the language of his/her home. In this situation, the child can either continue to speak his/her language or stop speaking altogether. Most young children, but not all, follow the first option for a brief period. During this time, the child may become frustrated at trying to get others to understand him/her. This frustration can lead to a silent period.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Non-Verbal/Silent Period- This period occurs when the child gives up trying to communicate with others in his/her language and stops talking altogether. It may be a brief period or it may last for a long time. Crying, pointing and miming are all nonverbal requests used by the child during this period.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Non-Verbal/Silent Period- This period occurs when the child gives up trying to communicate with others in his/her language and stops talking altogether. It may be a brief period or it may last for a long time. Crying, pointing and miming are all nonverbal requests used by the child during this period.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Telegraphic/Formulaic Language- At this time, the child is ready to begin speaking the second language. For most young children, breaking out of the nonverbal period means using a combination of telegraphic and formulaic language.Telegraphiclanguage is concise, often one-word usage of the language, such as naming people or objects or reciting the alphabet or numerals.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Telegraphic/Formulaic Language- At this time, the child is ready to begin speaking the second language. For most young children, breaking out of the nonverbal period means using a combination of telegraphic and formulaic language.Telegraphiclanguage is concise, often one-word usage of the language, such as naming people or objects or reciting the alphabet or numerals.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Continued…

    Formulaic language is when children can use phrases to get in and out of social situations such as no, yes, OK, mine, bye-bye, and I don’tknow. A combination of these two types of languages helps children get into theflow of classroom activities.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Productive Language Use- During this period, the child goes beyond short telegraphic utterances and “memorized phrases”. The child begins the process of building his/her own unique sentences by combining formulaic and telegraphic language. The child begins to demonstrate an understanding of the arrangement of words.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Intermediate Fluency/Fluency- This is the stage when children begin to use more extensive vocabulary. The spoken language is beginning to show varied grammatical structures comparable to English speaking children of the same age.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Phonological Development and Bilingual students

    • Phonological Awareness has been found to be very important for bilingual language development

    • Simultaneous bilinguals have differentiated language systems initially

    • In sequential bilinguals, you will see more transference of sound systems and as a result different errors than simultaneous bilinguals


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION

  • CASE STUDIES

  • DEBRIEF


  • All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Key Factors contributing to ELLs’ academic success

    • Classroom Environment

    • Curriculum Planning &Instructional Practices

    • Professional Development and Linguistic/ Cultural Competency

    • Engaging Families and Communities


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Classroom Environment

    • Have ample props

    • Use puppets and flannel boards to aid in telling and retelling stories

    • Provide safe havens in the classroom where children can go to spend some time away from the communicatively demanding activities


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Labels ( both picture and word)

    • Listening center (books on tape)

    • Print rich environment

    • Provide pictures/visuals of stories being read to reinforce comprehension

    • Invite parents to bring music and books from their home culture which can be integrated into the classroom environment


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    CURRICULUM PLANNING & INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Provide a safe, accepting classroom environment

    • Extend instructional time for ELLs

    • Be enthusiastic and animated when interacting with students

    • Recognize that all students thinking, language and emotional skills are connected to their home language and culture


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Observe students

    • Establish literacy routines such as monthly calendars, students sign in sheets

    • Observe students

    • Establish literacy routines such as monthly calendars, students sign in sheets


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Use demonstrations, modeling and role-playing

    • Daily story time

    • Small group experiences

    • One on one experiences between teacher and student

    • Use physical movement and gestures in conjunction with language activities


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Point to objects or touch them

    • Present new information in the context of known information

    • Paraphrase often

    • Use simple sentence structures

    • Mirror back to the student what they have said and expand on the words

    • Read predictable and patterned books in small groups and individually


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Model conversational language between/among teaching partners

    • Rather than correcting the student’s attempt at English, try to understand and respond to the meaning and/or model the correct use of language

    • Finger plays/rhyming songs

    • Use repetition and key words


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Provide daily encouragement as students use new words

    • Provide numerous ways for students to express their ideas, feelings and knowledge ( art, music, sensory experiences, block building, dramatic play and outdoor play)

    • Help students build connections through play


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Learn some words from the student’s language.

    • Don’t be afraid to make mistakes when you use words from the student’s language

    • Match language with experience

    • Make use of music, call and response, chants

    • Use consistent language for routines


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Have a mix of first and second language learners in organized small group activities

    • Provide opportunities to practice new language by integrating language activities into all learning areas

    • Have students complete sentences with one or two word responses

    • Recognize and integrate the connection between language instruction and cultural context


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND LINGUSITIC/CULTURAL COMPETENCY


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Ongoing dialogue on cultural competency

    • Provide opportunities for professional development

    • Develop learning communities (case studies, challenges…)

    • Engage families and communities to understand and support students backgrounds and academic success


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    • Professional Attitudes

    • Believe that language diversity is a worthy goal

    • Respect the language student and families bring to school and believe that their language is worth preserving and enriching

    • Appreciate culture and linguistic differences as undeniable individual differences

    • Be willing to learn more about the education of linguistically diverse students and families

    • Enhance students’ self image and their families.

    • Have positive attitude & confidence in the ability of linguistically diverse students and their families to learn


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    In Homes and With Families


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Understand that parents are the first educators of their students

    • Work to build partnerships with parents

    • Invite parents to participate in classroom activities or parent committees by;

      • demonstrating a skill/talent

      • reading/telling a story in their native language

      • singing a simple song that teachers

      • and students can learn


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Provide parents with books (lending library or donated books for parents to keep).Wordless books are excellent for this purpose.

    • Ask parents to develop story books in their home language which can be added to the classroom library.

    • Gather information about the languages and cultures of the families.


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Utilize community partners

    • Whenever possible, provide written and verbal information in the home language

    • Help parents who speak the same language connect with each other

    • Assist families to connect with appropriate community resources


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    • Work with parents to help them develop strategies for home language maintenance

    • Talk with someone from the community who is familiar with the home culture to learn about non-verbal cues such as how far to stand from the speaker or whether to make eye contact


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • During home visits (if student is home), provide interactions with student that would support literacy and language development. These interactions can provide a role model for the parent and develop a linkage to what is happening in the classroom.

    • Don’t be afraid to let the parent see you struggling to speak some words in their language.


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    Assessment of ELLs involves the multiple steps of collecting data


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    • Focused observation on the students’ development and learning

    • On-going Documentation and analysis of data in light of second language acquisition

    • Using linguistically/culturally appropriate assessment tools and processes

    • Incorporating the information into curriculum planning and differentiated instruction

    • Communicating and engaging families in the process.


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    Thank You for your participation!

    We would love to remain in contact with you! Please call or e-mail us to share your experiences or to ask questions!

    Multilingual Action Council @ Wheelock College

    Joelle Auguste

    (P) 617-879-2379

    [email protected]

    www.multilingualactioncouncil.org

    http://www.facebook.com/pages/Multilingual-Action-Council-1/181779345183826


    All students can learn understanding and educating english language learners ells

    Multilingual Action Council?


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