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BELLWORK . What was the purpose of Barricades Week? After analyzing the political cartoon on pg.287  What does the cartoon reveal about the difficulties facing de Gaulle? Why was de Gaulle willing to accept Algerian independence?

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Bellwork

BELLWORK

  • What was the purpose of Barricades Week?

  • After analyzing the political cartoon on pg.287  What does the cartoon reveal about the difficulties facing de Gaulle?

  • Why was de Gaulle willing to accept Algerian independence?

  • How did the events in other French colonies (Indochina, Morocco and Tunisia) influence the civil war in Algeria?

  • THINKER: Throughout the entirety of the conflict, both Algeria and France reported death tolls differently. For example, after the Setif revolt, France reported 1,005 Muslims died, but Algerian nationalists said 40,000-50,000 died. What could account for such large differences in reported deaths? Do you believe one side over the other? Is it possible to get an exact death toll in a war like this? Why or why not?


Barricades week

Barricades Week


Guerilla warfare

Guerilla Warfare

  • By 1957, FLN evolved into a disciplined fighting force of 40,000

  • Used assortment of hunting rifles and discarded French, German, and American weapons

  • FLN attacks were aimed at military targets, but also invested in a terror campaign against pro-French & non-Muslim civilians

  • Resulted in acts of torture and brutal violence against all, including women and children.

  • Specialized in ambushes and night raids and avoiding direct contact with superior French firepower, the internal forces targeted army patrols, military encampments, police posts, and colonial farms, mines, and factories, as well as transportation and communications facilities.

  • Kidnapping was commonplace, as were the ritual murder and mutilation of civilians.

  • French launched a counter-terror campaign

  • More than half of FLN troops were organized and stationed in Moroccan and Tunisian sanctuaries


International support

International Support

  • Why was it vital for the FLN to receive international support? How did the media play a role in this?

  • To increase international and domestic French attention to their struggle, the FLN decided to bring the conflict to the cities

  • The Battle of Algiers (September 30, 1956) began when three women, simultaneously placed bombs at three sites

  • French Army was instructed to use whatever methods necessary to restore order

  • The publicity given to the brutal methods created doubt in France about its role in Algeria. What was originally "pacification" or a "public order operation" had turned into a colonial war accompanied by torture.

  • FLN achieved their goal! They received media attention for their cause and international aide.

  • French Soldier killing fleeing Algerian while journalists were present


Algerian war review 1 vs 100

Algerian War Review: 1 vs 100

  • This game is every student for themselves!!!

  • On the line…… 10 points of extra credit!

  • One person will be the contestant and they are playing vs. the rest of the class.

  • A multiple choice question about the Algerian War will appear on the screen. You have 10 seconds to decide on an answer. All at once, everyone will hold it up.

  • The contestant must get it right, but everyone in the audience needs to answer correctly too.

  • Any incorrect answers will be disqualified.

  • We will play until the contestant either wins/loses.

  • If the contestant wins, they will get the ex. Cred. If the contestant answers incorrectly, all other players will divide the 10 points amongst who is left.

  • Either way, it is in your benefit to answer all questions correctly and independently.

  • If you are caught helping anyone, both people will be disqualified

  • Honesty is the best policy! Help me monitor correct answers 


Bellwork 2253128

1

  • Which of the following was NOT a conflict going on within Algeria?

    • Algerian Nationalists vs. French Army

    • French Government vs. Pieds-Noirs

    • FLN vs. French sympathizers


Bellwork 2253128

1

  • Which of the following was NOT a conflict going on within Algeria?

    • Algerian Nationalists vs. French Army

    • French Government vs. Pieds-Noirs

    • FLN vs. French sympathizers


Bellwork 2253128

2

  • What was the official French policy with regards to control of Algeria?

    • Forced assimilation to French culture/politics

    • Segregation of Muslim & French populations

    • Provide Muslims equal education, but prevent their participation in politics


Bellwork 2253128

2

  • What was the official French policy with regards to control of Algeria?

    • Forced assimilation to French culture/politics

    • Segregation of Muslim & French populations

    • Provide Muslims equal education, but prevent their participation in politics


Bellwork 2253128

3

  • How was Algeria involved in the French government?

    • They were allowed to vote but not hold public office

    • Allowed direct political representation

    • Not allowed any political involvement and were required to follow all French policies


Bellwork 2253128

3

  • How was Algeria involved in the French government?

    • They were allowed to vote but not hold public office

    • Allowed direct political representation

    • Not allowed any political involvement and were required to follow all French policies


Bellwork 2253128

4

  • Algerian leader and representative of Muslim political activists. Wrote the “Manifesto of the Algerian people” which condemned colonization.

    • Ben Bella

    • Fehrat Abbas

    • Jacques Soustelle


Bellwork 2253128

4

  • Algerian leader and representative of Muslim political activists. Wrote the “Manifesto of the Algerian people” which condemned colonization.

    • Ben Bella

    • Fehrat Abbas

    • Jacques Soustelle


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5

  • Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the Setif Revolt?

    • Began in response to V-E Day

    • French Nationalists hung radical banners, which prompted response by the FLN

    • French responded with increased repression and control


Bellwork 2253128

5

  • Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the Setif Revolt?

    • Began in response to V-E Day

    • French Nationalists hung radical banners, which prompted response by the FLN

    • French responded with increased repression and control


Bellwork 2253128

6

  • De Gaulle organized the Brazzaville Conference & promised a “new French community.” What changes did France make to their control of Algeria after this conference?

    • Acknowledged that decolonization would be a gradual process

    • Allowed Muslims to worship freely

    • Allowed Muslims to vote


Bellwork 2253128

6

  • De Gaulle organized the Brazzaville Conference & promised a “new French community.” What changes did France make to their control of Algeria after this conference?

    • Acknowledged that decolonization would be a gradual process

    • Allowed Muslims to worship freely

    • Allowed Muslims to vote


Bellwork 2253128

7

  • Who were the two revolutionary leaders of the FLN?

    • Ben Bella & Jacques Soustelle

    • Jacques Massu & Fehrat Abbas

    • Ben Bella & Fehrat Abbas


Bellwork 2253128

7

  • Who were the two revolutionary leaders of the FLN?

    • Ben Bella & Jacques Soustelle

    • Jacques Massu & Fehrat Abbas

    • Ben Bella & Fehrat Abbas


Bellwork 2253128

8

  • What was a key aspect to French military tactics?

    • Helicopters

    • Chemical Weapons

    • Torture


Bellwork 2253128

8

  • What was a key aspect to French military tactics?

    • Helicopters

    • Chemical Weapons

    • Torture


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9

  • Why did the FLN use guerilla warfare?

    • The U.S, their main ally, encouraged it

    • Terrain was densely forested and easy to hide troop movements

    • They lacked military equipment & money


Bellwork 2253128

9

  • Why did the FLN use guerilla warfare?

    • The U.S, their main ally, encouraged it

    • Terrain was densely forested and easy to hide troop movements

    • They lacked military equipment & money


Bellwork 2253128

10

  • The French Army purposely targeted civilians with its policy of “collective responsibility.” What did this mean?

    • All Muslim civilians were responsible for guerilla attacks

    • All pro-FLN civilians would be targeted, not just those who launched attacks

    • All Muslim villages that supported the FLN would be destroyed, even if there was no direct participation in attacks


Bellwork 2253128

10

  • The French Army purposely targeted civilians with its policy of “collective responsibility.” What did this mean?

    • All Muslim civilians were responsible for guerilla attacks

    • All pro-FLN civilians would be targeted, not just those who launched attacks

    • All Muslim villages that supported the FLN would be destroyed, even if there was no direct participation in attacks


Bellwork 2253128

11

  • Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding torture during the Algerian War?

    • Caused French citizens to demand change

    • Following the war, the French army was held responsible for their war crimes

    • The French responded by retaliating with torture to discourage support for the FLN


Bellwork 2253128

11

  • Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding torture during the Algerian War?

    • Caused French citizens to demand change

    • Following the war, the French army was held responsible for their war crimes

    • The French responded by retaliating with torture to discourage support for the FLN


Bellwork 2253128

12

  • Pressure from the _________ eventually caused the UN to discuss the Algerian situation and encourage France to change its Algerian policy.

    • Arab League

    • United States

    • Communist bloc


Bellwork 2253128

12

  • Pressure from the _________ eventually caused the UN to discuss the Algerian situation and encourage France to change its Algerian policy.

    • Arab League

    • United States

    • Communist bloc


Bellwork 2253128

13

  • Why did the FLN decide to move their guerilla actions into the cities, like in the Battle of Algiers?

    • To increase the colon death toll

    • To increase Muslim support of independence

    • To increase international attention


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13

  • Why did the FLN decide to move their guerilla actions into the cities, like in the Battle of Algiers?

    • To increase the colon death toll

    • To increase Muslim support of independence

    • To increase international attention


Bellwork 2253128

14

  • Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Battle of Algiers?

    • Allowed the FLN to form their provisional government - headquarters in Algiers & Bella as PM

    • Although the FLN lost militarily, it increased their popularity and political strength

    • Led to political crisis in France and declining support of the French government


Bellwork 2253128

14

  • Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Battle of Algiers?

    • Allowed the FLN to form their provisional government - headquarters in Algiers & Bella as PM

    • Although the FLN lost militarily, it increased their popularity and political strength

    • Led to political crisis in France and declining support of the French government


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15

  • How did the Algerian War change when De Gaulle was appointed as the leader of France after the fall of the Fourth Republic?

    • Realized the only solution was full independence for Algeria

    • He increased French control over cities

    • He understood that guerilla warfare had to end no matter the consequences = increased torture


Bellwork 2253128

15

  • How did the Algerian War change when De Gaulle was appointed as the leader of France after the fall of the Fourth Republic?

    • Realized the only solution was full independence for Algeria

    • He increased French control over cities

    • He understood that guerilla warfare had to end no matter the consequences = increased torture


Bellwork 2253128

16

  • Why did hostilities between the French army and De Gaulle grow after Barricades Week?

    • The Army went against De Gaulle by constructing barriers and continuing to repress Muslims

    • De Gaulle favored Muslims and the army favored the colons

    • De Gaulle was clear that his plan meant independence, which the army refused to accept


Bellwork 2253128

16

  • Why did hostilities between the French army and De Gaulle grow after Barricades Week?

    • The Army went against De Gaulle by constructing barriers and continuing to repress Muslims

    • De Gaulle favored Muslims and the army favored the colons

    • De Gaulle was clear that his plan meant independence, which the army refused to accept


Bellwork 2253128

17

  • Which of the following was NOT a decision reached at the Evian Peace Talks?

    • French citizens in Algeria would remain citizens of France for three years

    • French army would gradually withdrawal forces from Algeria

    • French maintained control of Sahara and oil fields


Bellwork 2253128

17

  • Which of the following was NOT a decision reached at the Evian Peace Talks?

    • French citizens in Algeria would remain citizens of France for three years

    • French army would gradually withdrawal forces from Algeria

    • French maintained control of Sahara and oil fields


Bellwork 2253128

18

  • Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Algerian War for Algeria?

    • Abbas becomes leader, establishes a one-party state, and expels Bella from the FLN

    • There is no political stability and decades of civil war follow Algerian independence

    • Rise of Islamic radicalism


Bellwork 2253128

18

  • Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Algerian War for Algeria?

    • Abbas becomes leader, establishes a one-party state, and expels Bella from the FLN

    • There is no political stability and decades of civil war follow Algerian independence

    • Rise of Islamic radicalism


Bellwork 2253128

19

  • How did the exodus of colons effect the Algerian economy?

    • Created a profitable trade relationship between French and Algerian citizens

    • Left a void in business and the economy declined

    • Once in France, the colons refused to purchase Algerian oil which led to an economic decline


Bellwork 2253128

19

  • How did the exodus of colons effect the Algerian economy?

    • Created a profitable trade relationship between French and Algerian citizens

    • Left a void in business and the economy declined

    • Once in France, the colons refused to purchase Algerian oil which led to an economic decline


Bellwork 2253128

20

  • Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Algerian War for France?

    • Was the only colonial war that changed the government of a European power

    • France invested in Algerian industries, like mining

    • Due to the high cost of the war, France went through a ten-year economic slump


Bellwork 2253128

20

  • Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Algerian War for France?

    • Was the only colonial war that changed the government of a European power

    • France invested in Algerian industries, like mining

    • Due to the high cost of the war, France went through a ten-year economic slump


Tie breaker

TIE BREAKER!!!

  • According to the French government, how many French people died during the Algerian War? (Closest guess wins!!!)


Tie breaker1

TIE BREAKER!!!

  • According to the French government, how many French people died during the Algerian War? (Closest guess wins!!!)

  • 17,456


The chinese civil war 1927 1937 1946 1949

The Chinese Civil War(1927-1937 & 1946-1949)

A Civil War Case Study

Homework: Read about the long-term and short-term causes of the CCW  252-258


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