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FINAL EXAM. Time managment. Benefits of Time Management. Gain time through organization Motivates to complete tasks Reduces avoidance of work to be done Promotes review and study time Eliminates cramming for tests Reduces anxiety . Benefits of Time Management.

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Final exam

FINAL EXAM


Time managment

Time managment


Benefits of time management

Benefits of Time Management

  • Gain time through organization

  • Motivates to complete tasks

  • Reduces avoidance of work to be done

  • Promotes review and study time

  • Eliminates cramming for tests

  • Reduces anxiety

www.personal.psu.edu/sak229/Time%20Management.ppt


Benefits of time management1

Benefits of Time Management

  • Gain time through organization

    شکار وقت در سازمان

  • Motivates to complete tasks

    ایجاد انگیزه در جهت اتمام فعالیتها

  • Reduces avoidance of work to be done

    کاهش موانع انجام کار

  • Promotes review and study time

    ترویج بازبینی و بررسی وقت

  • Eliminates cramming for tests

    حذف تست های مکرر

  • Reduces anxiety

    کاهش اضطراب و دلهره

www.personal.psu.edu/sak229/Time%20Management.ppt


Purpose of time self management

Purpose of Time (Self) Management

  • Stress=Managing time well can prevent much of the stress we are subject to.

  • Balance=Good time habits can enable us to achieve a more balanced life, with adequate time and energy for work, home, family, self.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt

Mackenzie, 1997


Purpose of time self management1

Purpose of Time (Self) Management

  • Stress=Managing time well can prevent much of the stress we are subject to.

  • Balance=Good time habits can enable us to achieve a more balanced life, with adequate time and energy for work, home, family, self.

  • هدف از مدیریت زمان (خود)

  • تنش= مدیریت خوب زمان، می تواند از مقدار زیادی ا ز تنش هایی را که با آنها مواجه هستیم بکاهد.

  • تعادل= مدیریت زمان خوب ما را قادر می سازد، در زندگی تعادل بیشتر و زمان و انرژی کافی هم برای کار و هم برای خانه و هم برای خانواده خود داشته باشیم.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt

Mackenzie, 1997


Purpose of time self management2

Purpose of Time (Self) Management

  • Productivity=If you can become more effective with your time, you automatically increase your productivity.

  • Goals=To make progress toward achieving your personal and professional goals, you need available time. Nothing can be done when you’re out of time.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt

Mackenzie, 1997


Purpose of time self management3

Purpose of Time (Self) Management

  • Productivity=If you can become more effective with your time, you automatically increase your productivity.

  • Goals=To make progress toward achieving your personal and professional goals, you need available time. Nothing can be done when you’re out of time.

هدف از مدیریت زمان (خود)

کارایی= اگر شما بتوانید از وقت خود بیشتر استفاده کنید، آنگاه به صورت خودکار کارایی خود را افزایش می دهید.

اهداف= برای ایجاد پیشرفت در جهت دستیابی به اهداف شخصی و حرفه ای خودتان، شما نیاز به زمان دارید. هیچ کاری در صورتی که وقت انجامش را ندارید، به ثمر نخواهد رسید.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt

Mackenzie, 1997


The 80 20 rule pareto principle

The 80/20 Rule (Pareto Principle)

  • Theory of predictable imbalance

  • The relationship between input and output is rarely, if ever, balanced.

  • 20% of your efforts produce 80% of the results.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt

Vaccaro, 2000


The 80 20 rule pareto principle1

The 80/20 Rule (Pareto Principle)

  • Theory of predictable imbalance

  • The relationship between input and output is rarely, if ever, balanced.

  • 20% of your efforts produce 80% of the results.

قاعده 80/20 (اصل پارتو)

تئوری پیش بینی عدم تعادل

ارتباط بین ورودی و خروجی به ندرت بالانس می شود.

20% تلاشهای شما 80% نتایج را ایجاد می کنند.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt

Vaccaro, 2000


The 80 20 rule where are you

The 80/20 RuleWhere are you?

  • You’re in your 80% if you’re:

    • Working on tasks other people want you to, but have no investment in them

    • Frequently working on tasks labeled “urgent”

    • Spending time on tasks you’re not good at

    • Complaining all of the time

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt


The 80 20 rule where are you1

The 80/20 RuleWhere are you?

  • You’re in your 80% if you’re:

    • Working on tasks other people want you to, but have no investment in them

    • Frequently working on tasks labeled “urgent”

    • Spending time on tasks you’re not good at

    • Complaining all of the time

قاعده 80/20

شما کجا قرار دارید؟

شما در 80% تان هستید اگر:

روی فعالیتهایی که دیگران از شما می خواهند کار کنید و هیچ سرمایه گذاری روی آنها انجام نداده اید.

بیشتر فعالیتهای شما اولویت دار و فوری باشد.

روی فعالیتهایی که روی آن تبحر کافی ندارید، وقت صرف کنید.

همیشه به دنبال را های بهتر باشید.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt


The 80 20 rule where are you2

The 80/20 RuleWhere are you?

  • You’re in your 20% if you’re:

    • Engaged in activities that advance your overall purpose in life

    • Doing things you have always wanted to do or that make you feel good about yourself

    • Working on tasks you don’t like, but you’re doing them know they related to the bigger picture

    • Smiling

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt


The 80 20 rule where are you3

The 80/20 RuleWhere are you?

  • You’re in your 20% if you’re:

    • Engaged in activities that advance your overall purpose in life

    • Doing things you have always wanted to do or that make you feel good about yourself

    • Working on tasks you don’t like, but you’re doing them know they related to the bigger picture

    • Smiling

  • قاعده 80/20

  • شما کجا قرار دارید؟

  • شما در 20% تان هستید اگر:

  • در فعالیتهایی قدم بگذارید که اهداف کلی شما را در زندگی به پیش می برند.

  • کارهایی را انجام دهید که همیشه خواسته اید انجامشان دهید یا اینکه از انجامشان حس خوبی نسبت به خودتان پیدا می کنید.

  • فعالیت هایی را انجام دهید که دوست ندارید، اما می دانید که انجام آنها در جهت اهداف بزرگتر هستند.

  • تبسم

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt


Implementing the 80 20 rule

Implementing the 80/20 Rule

  • Read less. Identify the 20% of the journals you get that are most valuable.

  • Keep current. Make yourself aware of new technological innovations.

  • Remember the basics. Let your ethics and values guide your decision making, and you’re bound to end up focusing on your 20%.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt


Implementing the 80 20 rule1

Implementing the 80/20 Rule

  • Read less. Identify the 20% of the journals you get that are most valuable.

  • Keep current. Make yourself aware of new technological innovations.

  • Remember the basics. Let your ethics and values guide your decision making, and you’re bound to end up focusing on your 20%.

اجرای قانون 80/20

کمتر بخوانید. 20% نشریاتی را که به نظرتان با ارزش ترین هستند شناسایی کنید.

به روز باشید. از نوآوری های تکنولوژیکی آگاه باشید.

اصول را به یاد آورید. بگذارید اخلاق و ارزشهای شما راهنمای تصمیم گیری شماباشد، و شما ملزم به این هستید که به تمرکز بر روی 20% خاتمه دهید.

uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%20Management.ppt


Why use time management skills

Why use Time Management Skills?

  • Balance the conflicting demands

  • Leisure

  • Earning money and job-hunting

  • Lead to a build up of stress

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/time-management/wl00048


Final exam

چرا از مهارت های مدیریت زمان استفاده می کنیم؟

  • ايجاد تعادل درخواسته های متضاد

  • ايجادفرصت و فراغت

  • کسب درآمد و دست یابی به شغل

  • مديريت جهت افزايش تدريجي دراسترس(كنترل استرس)

  • درشكل مثلث:مديريت زمان دقت در انتخاب است

  • چه بايد بكنيم

  • چه وقت بايد انجام دهيم

  • چطور بايد آن را انجام دهيم


10 effective time management skills

10 Effective Time Management Skills

1. Carry a schedule and record all your thoughts, conversations and activities for a week.

2. Any activity or conversation that’s important to your success should have a time assigned to it.

3.Plan to spend at least 50 percent of your time engaged in the thoughts, activities and conversations that produce most of your results.

4. Schedule time for interruptions.

5. Take the first 30 minutes of every day to plan your day.

6. Take five minutes before every call and task to decide what result you want to attain.

7. Put up a “Do not disturb” sign when you absolutely have to get work done.

http://business.transworld.net/127446/news/10-effective-time-mangement-skills/


Final exam

10مهارت موثر برای مدیریت زمان

  • 1. ايجاد يك جدول و تمام افكارت،گفتگوها وفعاليت هاي خود را براي يك هفته ثبت كن. 2. هر گونه فعالیت و یا گفتگو يي كه براي آن زمان اختصاص داده شده براي موفقيت شما مهم است. 3. برنامه ريزي كنيد تا كمتر از 50% زمان شما درگير افكار،فعاليت عاوگفتگوها شود تا نتايج بيشتري براي شما حاصل شود. 4. جدول زمان بندی برای وقفه ها داشته باشيد. 5. نابتداي هرروز 30 دقيقه براي برنامه ريزي آن روز داشته باشيد. 6. پنج دقيقه قبل از هر تماس و وظيفه اي فكر كنيد و تصميم بگيريد به چه نتيجه اي ميخواهيد برسيد. 7. نوشته"مزاحم نشوید" را موقعي كه مشغول كاري هستيد قرار دهيد.


10 effective time management skills cont d

10 Effective Time Management Skills(cont’d)

8. Practice not answering the phone just because it’s ringing and e-mails just because they show up.

9. Block out other distractions like Facebook and other forms of social media unless you use these tools to generate business.

10. Remember that it’s impossible to get everything done.

http://business.transworld.net/127446/news/10-effective-time-mangement-skills/


Final exam

10مهارت موثر برای مدیریت زمان

8تمرين كنيد به تلفن ها پاسخ گو نباشيد چون فقط زنگ مي خورد ويا به ايميل ها چون فقط نشان داده ميشوند. 9. تمام عوامل حواس پرتي مانند فيس بوك و رسانه هاي اجتماعي را بلوك كنيد(استفاده نكنيد). 10. به یاد داشته باشید که این غیر ممکن است كه همه چيز (همه كارها) انجام شود.


5 time management techniques

5 Time Management Techniques

  • Technique #1: Make and use lists.

    1. My Schedule. This is for the entire year, day by day.2. Things-to-Do List. This is a basic “Things-to-Do” list organized by month, week, and day

    3. People-to-Call List. My third list is a “People-to-Call” list, also prioritized alphabetically.4. Conference Planner. 

  • Technique #2: Tickle the memory with tickler files

  • Technique #3: Minimize meetings

  • Technique #4: Block your time

  • Technique #5: Profit from “odd lot” time

    http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/229772


Final exam

5تکنیک برای مدیریت زمان

تکنیک # 1: يك ليست بسازيد و ازآن استفاده كنيد. 1. برنامه من. براي كل سال است و بصورت روز به روز،؟ 2.چیزهایی –ليست انجام كار- اين براساس“چيزهايي كه بايد انجام شود“ سازماندهي شده و بصورت ماهانه،هفتگي وروزانه ميباشد

3.ليست تلفن مردم _سومين ليست من ليست تلفن مردم براساس حروف الفبا

4.برنامه ريزي كنفرانس هاتکنیک # 2: غلغلک دادن حافظه با فایل های تحریک کننده قمقمه کوچک تکنیک # 3: به حداقل رساندن جلسات تکنیک # 4: بلوک كردن وقت خود (از هدر رفتن آن جلوگيري كنيم)تکنیک # 5: منفعت بردن از زمان”بسيار كوچك“(ازحداقل زمان استفاده كردن)


The urgent important matrix

The Urgent/Important Matrix

  • What Are "Urgent" and "Important"Activities?

    • Important activities have an outcome that leads to the achievement of your goals, whether these are professional or personal.

    • Urgent activities demand immediate attention, and are often associated with the achievement of someone else's goals.

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_91.htm


Final exam

ماتریس مهم / فوری

  • فعالیت های "فوری" و "مهم" چه هستند؟

    • فعالیت های مهم یک نتیجه دارند که منجر به دستیابی به اهدافتان می شود، خواه شخصی باشد یا حرفه ای.

  • فعالیت های فوری خواستار توجه فوری است و اغلب با تحقق اهداف فرد دیگری در ارتباط است.

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_91.htm


The urgent important matrix1

The Urgent/Important Matrix

  • نحوه استفاده از ابزار

  • ماتریس مهم / فوری یک روش قدرتمند از تفکر درباره اولویت ها است

  • استفاده ار آن به شما کمک می کند بطور طبیعی بر روی فعالیتهای فوری تمرکز کنید

  • به طوری که شما می توانید زمانتان را به اندازه کافی جهت تمرکز برروی آنچه واقعا مهم است نگه دارید

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_91.htm


Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship


Entrepreneurship1

Entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurship

    a way of thinking, reasoning, and acting that is:

    • opportunity obsessed

    • holistic in approach

    • and leadership balanced

http://planetminkoff.com/AIPh/Entrep/FS20842-wk01-FA04.ppt


Entrepreneurship2

Entrepreneurship

  • Some advantages

    • You are your own boss

    • Enjoy the profits from you efforts

    • Sense of pride in your business

    • Flexibility in your work schedule

http://azffa.org/downloads.php?dir=/Ag%20Ed%20-%20SAE%20(Public)&action=download&file=Entrepreneurship.ppt


Final exam

E-Entrepreneurship


Definition

Definition

  • An e-entrepreneur is defined as an individual willing to take the risk of investing time and money in an electronic business that has the potential to make a profit or incur a loss.

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Virtual business

Virtual Business

  • Does not have a material space designed to receive customers

  • Transacts most of its business online

  • Can deal with customers from any location that offers Internet capability

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Components of an e business site

Components of an E-Business Site

  • Web site design

  • Content

  • Web host

  • Security and/or firewalls

  • Search site submission

  • On-site search engine

  • Database software

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Additional features needed for online payment

Additional Features Needed for Online Payment

  • Product catalog

  • Shopping cart

  • Merchant account provider

  • Alternative payment options

  • Order fulfillment

  • Customer service

  • E-mail notification

  • Customer FAQs

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Global e entrepreneurship agreement

Global E-Entrepreneurship Agreement

  • The U.S. and 29 other countries are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Global e entrepreneurship agreement guidelines

Global E-Entrepreneurship Agreement Guidelines

  • Fair business, advertising, and marketing practices

  • Enough information to allow consumers to make informed choices, including disclosures about online businesses, their goods and services, and the terms and conditions of sale

  • Clear processes for confirming transactions

  • Secure payment mechanisms

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Global e entrepreneurship agreement guidelines continued

Global E-Entrepreneurship Agreement Guidelines (continued)

  • Timely and affordable dispute resolution and redress processes

  • Privacy protection

  • Consumer and business education

  • International government cooperation

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Web site checklist

Web Site Checklist

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Myths of e entrepreneurship

Myths of E-Entrepreneurship

  • E-entrepreneurship is a no-brainer.

  • E-entrepreneurship is cheap.

  • The best price is always online.

  • E-commerce will kill traditional retail.

  • E-entrepreneurships make an obscene amount of money.

  • E-entrepreneurship is not safe.

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


Myths of e entrepreneurship1

Myths of E-Entrepreneurship

(continued)

  • E-entrepreneurship success depends on the right technology.

  • Getting products to consumers is an e-entrepreneur’s biggest cost.

  • Most Web consumers are “young.”

  • If a product or service can be sold, it can be sold on the Web.

  • Everyone else is selling online.

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


15 most common e entrepreneurship mistakes

15 Most Common E-Entrepreneurship Mistakes

1.Trying to sell the wrong product online

2.Misjudging the web site’s potential

3.Forgetting that a first impression can only be made once

4.Making the site too complicated

5.Using a complicated navigation system

6.Forgetting to list your phone number

7.Supporting only one browser

8.Featuring out-of-date content

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


15 most common e entrepreneurship mistakes continued

15 Most Common E-Entrepreneurship Mistakes (continued)

9.Requiring excessive download times

10.Ignoring customer service

11.Not validating the functionality of your site

12.Not merging your web site with your conventional business

13.Not promoting the site

14.Using spam promotion

15.Failing to deliver products

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


E entrepreneurship in the business plan

E-Entrepreneurship in the Business Plan

  • The e-entrepreneurship components of the business planning process integrate your Internet site and your basic business model.

  • They should address web site planning, development, marketing, legal, financial, management, and special considerations.

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


E entrepreneurship in the business plan1

E-Entrepreneurship in the Business Plan

  • They should be designed to ensure that your Internet content reaches the right customer while leveraging the full value of the Internet as a marketing tool.

http://216.235.169.101/allStaffMedia.ppt?mediaID=1055&sz=192512


The deadly mistakes of entrepreneurship

The Deadly Mistakes of Entrepreneurship

  • Management mistakes

  • Lack of experience

  • Poor financial control

  • Weak marketing efforts

  • Failure to develop a strategic plan

  • Uncontrolled growth

http://www.prenhall.com/behindthebook/0132294389/pdf/Feature_2_Why%20Adopt.pdf


The deadly mistakes of entrepreneurship1

The Deadly Mistakes of Entrepreneurship

  • Poor location

  • Improper inventory control

  • Incorrect pricing

  • Inability to make the “entrepreneurial transition”

http://www.prenhall.com/behindthebook/0132294389/pdf/Feature_2_Why%20Adopt.pdf


Mind map

Mind map


What is a mind map

What is a Mind Map

  • A Mind Map is similar to a road map to

    help you on your journey.

  • It will provide an overview or overall picture

    of a particular subject and help you plan

    your route or choices.

  • The Mind Map stores large amounts of information efficiently

    http://litemind.com/what-is-mind-mapping/


What is a mind map1

What is a Mind Map

  • discovering that the final Mind Map is not only easy to read and look at, but also uses the potential of the brain in a very exciting way.

  • It helps develop new brain skills, which are often overlooked by traditional teaching methods.

    http://litemind.com/what-is-mind-mapping/


Characteristics main of mind maps

Characteristics main of Mind Maps

  • The main idea is the central image:

  • Branches radiate from the main Idea

  • The key Image is printed on the branch

  • Twigs are the secondary thoughts

  • All the branches form a nodal structure

    http://troym.hubpages.com/hub/5-Characteristics-of-Mind-Maps


A brief summary the importance of mind mapping

A Brief Summary: The Importance of Mind Mapping!

  • Mind mapping is one of the very best methods to optimize ones learning capacities and understanding of how the elements of complex structures are connected.

reference :http://www.mapyourmind.com/ebook.pdf


A brief summary the importance of mind mapping1

A Brief Summary: The Importance of Mind Mapping!

  • Mind mapping یکی از بهترین روش ها برای بهینه سازی ظرفیت یادگیریو درک چگونگیعناصر ساختار پیچیده متصل بهم است.

reference :http://www.mapyourmind.com/ebook.pdf


7 steps to making a mind map

7 Steps to Making a Mind Map

  • 1.Start in the CENTRE of a blank page turned sideways. Why? Because starting in the centre gives your Brain freedom to spread out in all directions and to express itself more freely and naturally.

  • 2.Use an IMAGE or PICTURE for your central idea. Why? Because an image is worth a thousand words and helps you use your Imagination. A central image is more interesting, keeps you focussed, helps you concentrate, and gives your Brain more of a buzz!

reference : http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mind-mapping/


7 steps to making a mind map1

7 Steps to Making a Mind Map

  • شروع در مرکز از یک صفحه خالی چرخیده شده به یک سمت.

  • چرا؟

  • چون با شروع در مرکز صفحه جهت گسترش در همه جهات و برای بیان آزادانه و طبیعی تر آزادی ذهنی به شما داده می شود .

  • استفاده از یک تصویر و یا عکس برای ایده اصلی تان.

  • چرا؟

  • چون یک تصویر ارزش هزار کلمه را دارد و کمک کی کند به شما برای بکار گیری تصورتتان.

  • یک تصویر مرکزی بسیار جلب توجه می کند ، تمرکز تان را نگه می دارد، کمک می کند تمرکز کنید و به ذهن شما بیشتر از یک همهمه اطلاعات می دهد.

reference : http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mind-mapping/


7 steps to making a mind map2

7 Steps to Making a Mind Map

  • 3.Use COLOURS throughout. Why? Because colours are as exciting to your Brain as are images. Colour adds extra vibrancy and life to your Mind Map, adds tremendous energy to your Creative Thinking, and is fun!

  • 4.CONNECT your MAIN BRANCHES to the central image and connect your second- and third-level branches to the first and second levels, etc. Why? Because your Brain works by association. It likes to link two (or three, or four) things together. If you connect the branches, you will understand and remember a lot more easily.

reference : http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mind-mapping/


7 steps to making a mind map3

7 Steps to Making a Mind Map

  • استفاده از رنگ ها در سراسر در همه جا.

  • چرا ؟

  • چون رنگها مانند تصاویر برای ذهن شما هیجان انگیز هستند.

  • رنگها جنب و جوش و حیات فوق العاده ای را را به Mind Map شما اضافه می کنند . انرژی فوق العاده ای را به تفکر خلاقانه شما اضافه می کنند و این لذت بخش است.

  • اتصال سرشاخه های اصلی به تصویر مرکزی و اتصال سرشاخه های دوم و سوم به سطوح اول و دوم و غیره.

  • چرا؟

  • چون مغز شما با ارتباطات کار میکند. این شبیه ارتباط دو چیز به همدیگر است.اگر شما به شاخه ها متصل بشید شما بسیار ساده تر می توانید متوجه بشوید و به خاطر بسپارید .

reference : http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mind-mapping/


7 steps to making a mind map4

7 Steps to Making a Mind Map

  • شاخه ها را منحنی کنید نه بصورت راست. چرا؟ چون خطوط راست چیزی نداند و برای ذهن شما خسته کننده هستند.

  • از یک کلمه کلیدی در هر خط استفاده کنید. چون کلید واژه های تکی به ذهن شما قدرت و انعطاف می دهد

  • در همه جا از تصاویر استفاده کنید.چون هر تصویر مانند تصویر مرکزی به اندازه هزار کلمه ارزش دارد. چون اگر شما تنها 10 تصویر در Mind Map داشته باشید این در واقع به اندازه 1000 عبارت از یک یادداشت است

reference : http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mind-mapping/


Benefits and uses

Benefits and Uses

  • We can use mind maps for :

    • Note taking

    • Brainstorming (individually or in groups)

    • Problem solving

    • Studying and memorization

    • Planning

    • Researching and consolidating information from multiple sources

    • Presenting information

    • Gaining insight on complex subjects

    • Jogging your creativity

reference : http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mind-mapping/


Final exam

مزایا و موارد استفاده

  • ما ازmind maps می توان استفاده کنیم برای:

    • اخذ یادداشت

    • طوفان مغزی (به صورت جداگانه و یا در گروه)

    • حل مشکلات

    • مطالعه و حفظ کردن

    • برنامه ریزی

    • تحقیق و تحکیم اطلاعات از منابع مختلف

    • ارائه اطلاعات

    • به دست آوردن بینش در مورد موضوعات پیچیده

    • بروز خلاقیت شما بطور آرام(آهسته-بدون استرس)

reference : http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mind-mapping/


10 tips for highly effective mind mapping sessions

10 Tips for Highly Effective Mind Mapping Sessions

  • If you follow these 10 simple tips, you should find your mindmapping sessions to me radically improved.

    • 1. Eliminate Environmental Distractions

    • 2. Eliminate all paper / digital distractions

    • 3. Start with a good question or idea

    • 4. Start with that goal, but feel free to deviate from it

    • 5. Leave yourself enough room to expand

    • 6. Don’t try to make it too clean or professional

    • 7. Write down every semi-decent thought or idea that comes to you

    • 8. Color code, doodle, scratch out and do whatever else you want

      to your brainstorm

    • 9. If you need to, familiarize yourself with the materials before

      your session begins

    • 10. Get started right now

reference : http://www.gearfire.net/10-tips-highly-effective-mindmapping-sessions/


10 mind map

10 نکته برای بسیار موثرجلسات Mind Map

  • اگر شما به دنبال این 10 نکته ساده باشید ، شما باید بتوانید Mind Map را پیدا کنید

  • از بین بردن سرگرمی های محیط اطراف

    • حذف کاغذها / سرگرمی های دیجیتالی

    • با یک سوال یا ایده خوب شروع کنید

    • شروع با این هدف، اما در صورت تمایل به انحراف از آن

    • دیدگاهتان را به اندازه کافی گسترش دهید

    • لازم نیست سعی کنید حرفه ای بسیازید

    • هر فکر یا ایده شبه مناسب و معقول را بنوسید

    • کد رنگ، طرح لوگوی، انجام هر چیز دیگری که می تواند شما را به طوفان فکری برساند.

    • اگر لازم است قبل از شروع جلسه خودتان را با موارد آشنا کنید

    • همین حالا می تونید شروع کنید

reference : http://www.gearfire.net/10-tips-highly-effective-mindmapping-sessions/


Problems linear notes

PROBLEMS – LINEAR NOTES

1.Obscure Key Words

2.Boring

3.Waste time

4.Unnecessary noting

5.Reading unnecessary notes

6.Re reading unnecessary notes

7.Searching for Key Words

http://casap.org/2010/2010_Conference/MindMapping.ppt


Problems linear notes1

PROBLEMS – LINEAR NOTES

مشکلات در عنوانهای خطوط

1. مبهم بودن کلید واژه ها

2. خسته کننده شدن کار

3. اتلاف وقت

4. یادداشت برداری غیر ضروری

5. خواندن یادداشت های غیر ضروری

6. بازخوانی یادداشت های غیر ضروری

7. جستجو برای کلید واژه ها

1.Obscure Key Words

2.Boring

3.Waste time

4.Unnecessary noting

5.Reading unnecessary notes

6.Re reading unnecessary notes

7.Searching for Key Words

http://casap.org/2010/2010_Conference/MindMapping.ppt


Busines plan

Busines plan


Four principle strategy issues

Four Principle Strategy Issues

  • overall company strategy: overall approach to producing and selling products and services, goals for maximizing success, what is your guiding principle?

  • mission statement: a statement that encapsulates your company’s values and overall purpose in life

  • technology/information assessment: ability to use technology and manage information

  • management team: who determines and implements strategy (must have credibility)

http://content.hccfl.edu/facultyinfo/ckasper/files/868D92780D9847CFA4F6EF853A3AF9D7.ppt


1 overall strategy past present and future issues

1) Overall Strategy: past, present and future issues

  • Discuss your company’s history, when it was started, by whom, has strategy changed from that of the past, if so, why?

  • Include fundamentals: sales, profits, number of employees, locations

  • What is status of company today (snapshot)?

  • Strengths and Weaknesses:mention these, you will appear more honest, open-minded

http://content.hccfl.edu/facultyinfo/ckasper/files/868D92780D9847CFA4F6EF853A3AF9D7.ppt


Overall strategy future prospects

Overall Strategy: future prospects

  • Also known as the “objectives” section

  • easy to project good growth, harder to make it believable

  • if you had a history of growth, then it is more believable

  • can sometimes use external trends (e.g., growth in another area) to justify new direction

  • start-up companies can more easily speak to growth because they have bad experiences to dispel optimism

  • people starting the business can lend credibility to the plan if they, themselves, are credible

http://content.hccfl.edu/facultyinfo/ckasper/files/868D92780D9847CFA4F6EF853A3AF9D7.ppt


2 the mission statement

2) The Mission Statement

  • Represents a more generalized and idealistic vision of the company’s purpose in life

  • often, these visions are a little too lofty

  • many times it is more than adequate just to improve people’s lives

  • mission statements also establish achievable goals

  • often focus on three issues: product, economic and social objectives

http://content.hccfl.edu/facultyinfo/ckasper/files/868D92780D9847CFA4F6EF853A3AF9D7.ppt


3 technology information assessment

3) Technology/Information Assessment

  • Greater or higher technology allows small companies to compete on an even playing field with larger ones

  • used to achieve competitive advantages

  • with proper technology, customers can be serviced more quickly and efficiently than competitors

  • technology must be integrated into the company’s most important operations

  • examples?

http://content.hccfl.edu/facultyinfo/ckasper/files/868D92780D9847CFA4F6EF853A3AF9D7.ppt


4 the management team

4) The Management Team

  • This is the critical link in making the strategy section believable

  • quality of the management team should speak for itself because people are the key to determining success

  • two most common problems: one-man-band syndrome, everyone from same background

  • hard to expand if you have a dictator

  • successful management teams require diversity of training and expertise

http://content.hccfl.edu/facultyinfo/ckasper/files/868D92780D9847CFA4F6EF853A3AF9D7.ppt


Decision

Decision


Decision making techniques

Decision Making Techniques


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

Decision making techniques vary according to the nature of the problem or topic, decision maker, situation, and decision making method or process.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • 1. Group decision making:

  • A number of studies have shown that professional people do not function well under micromanagement.

  • Group problem solving casts the manager in the role of facilitators and consultant.

  • Compare to individual decision making , group can provide more input and better decision.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • 2. Nominal group technique (NGT)

  • It is eliciting written questions, ideas, and reactions from group members.

  • Consists of :

  • Silently generating ideas in written.

  • Round-robin presentation by group members of their ideas on a flip chart.

  • Discussing each recorded idea and evaluate.

  • Voting individually on priority ideas, with group solution being derived mathematically through rank ordering.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

3. Delphi technique

It is judgments on a particular topic are systematically gathered from participants who do not meet face to face.

Useful when expert opinions are needed .

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

4. Statistical aggregation:

Individuals are polled(قرعة(regarding a specific problem and their responses are tallied .

like Delphi technique , does not require a group meeting.

no opportunity for group members to strength their interpersonal tie or interaction.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • 5. Brainstorming

  • The idea generating technique wherein a Group members meet and generate diverse ideas about the nature, cause , definition, or solution to a problem without regard to questions of feasibility or practicality.

  • Through this technique, individuals are encouraged to identify a wide range of ideas. Usually, one individual is assigned to record the ideas on a chalkboard.

  • Brainstorming may be used at any stage of the decision- making process, but it is most effective at the beginning, once a problem has been stated.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Brainstorming

  • Brainstormingis most effective for simple, well-defined problems.

  • It encourages enthusiasm and competitiveness among group members in generating ideas.

  • It also prevents group members from feeling hopeless about the range of possibilities in a given situation.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Brainstorming

Brainstorming

Two methods are more frequently used.

  • First: is the structured method (known as the round-robin) where each, member is asked to put forward an idea.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • The other technique: is unstructured and is known as free-wheeling, in which ideas are produced and expressed by anyone at any time.

  • It is enjoyable but are often unsuccessful because members being to critique ideas.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

6. fishbone diagram (causes and effect)

Is drawn after a brainstorming session, the central problem is visualized as the head of the fish, with the skeleton divided into branches showing contributing causes of different parts of the problem.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Fishbone diagram (Cause and effect)

shortage of physical plant space

lack of availability of ground ambulance transportation

limited resources of ED in the form of medical

Lack of supplies and medications

Unavailability of operating room time

ED Overcrowding

Ancillary services not same hours as ED

No system available for supervising &evaluating work

Lack of availability of 24-hour laboratory tests

Increased medical records documentation requirements

Increase length of stay due to waiting for test

Resources

and facilities

Delay in the services provided by radiology, lab. and ancillary services

Delay in treatment and prolonged patient stay in ED

Work system

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • 8. Pareto Analysis

  • Selecting the Most Important Changes To Make.

  • It uses the Pareto principle - the idea that by doing 20% of work you can generate 80% of the advantage of doing the entire job

  • is a formal technique for finding the changes that will give the biggest benefits.

    How to use tool:

  • write out a list of the changes you could make

  •   Then score the items or groups.

  • The first change to tackle is the one that has the highest score

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • 9. Paired Comparison Analysis

  • Working Out the Relative Importance of Different Options.

  • helps you to work out the importance of a number of options relative to each other. It is particularly useful where you do not have objective data to base this on.

  • easy to choose the most important problem to solve, or select the solution that will give you the greatest advantage .

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Paired comparison analysis

Paired Comparison Analysis

How to use tool:

  • list your options. Then draw up a grid with each option as both a row and a column header.

  • use this grid to compare each option with each other option

  • decide which of the two options is most important

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • 10. PMI ('Plus/Minus/Implications' )

  • Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Decision.

  • How to use :

  • focused on selecting a course of action from a range of options.

  • check that it is going to improve the situation

  • draw up a table headed up with: 'Plus', 'Minus',

  • In the column underneath 'Plus', write down all the positive results of taking the action. Underneath 'Minus' write down all the negative effects. In the 'Implications' column write down the implications and possible outcomes of taking the action, whether positive or negative.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

11. Six thinking hats

Looking at a Decision from All Points of View

It is used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives. This forces you to move outside your habitual thinking style, and helps you to get a more rounded view of a situation.

'6 Thinking Hats‘

How to the Tool:

Each 'Thinking Hat' is a different style of thinking.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

6 Thinking Hats

White Hat:

With this thinking hat you focus on the data available. Look at the information you have, and see what you can learn from it.

Red Hat:

you look at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion .

Try to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning.

Black Hat:

look at all the bad points of the decision .

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

6 Thinking Hats

Yellow Hat:The yellow hat helps you to think positively. It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it

Green Hat:The Green Hat stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem

Blue Hat:The Blue Hat stands for process control. This is the hat worn by people chairing meetings. When running into difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity into Green Hat thinking. When contingency plans are needed, they will ask for Black Hat thinking,

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Final exam

Decision Making Techniques

  • 12. Decision grid:

  • A decision making process grid is a matrix for comparing multiple options when there are also several criteria to consider.

  • It has many names, including Pugh matrix, solution matrix, decision making matrix, decision grid, problem selection grid.

  • It is a rational modeland is also classed as a visual decision tool.

  • When the complexity of the decision increases these decision making tools and techniques can prove useful. Especially as the number of options and criteria increase.

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74133/post%20graduate%20courses/decision%20making.ppt


Different kinds of decision makers

Different Kinds of Decision Makers

  • ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY

  • ECAMPUS EMBA

  • The indecisive: as described below:

    • Inaction: sit on it and not doing anything about it for fear of opening a can of worms or get bad news:  procrastination

    • Analysis-paralysis, but procrastinate the decision-making.

    • Expend too much effort on trivial problems, i.e. those that do not require full-blown analysis.

    • Analyse but don't decide until few alternatives are left.  Wait till the very last minute to decide.

    • Biased by other people's opinions

    • Sunk-cost bias, often to justify less effort or payoff.

http://www.analyticalq.com/da/chapter1.htm


Final exam

انواع مختلف تصميم گيرندگان

  • ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY

  • ECAMPUS EMBA

  • غیر قطعی:

http://www.analyticalq.com/da/chapter1.htm


Different kinds of decision makers1

Different Kinds of Decision Makers

  • ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY

  • ECAMPUS EMBA

  • Gut feel, no analysis at all, just go for it.  Already convinced without enough evidence.

  • Decision making by consensus, by taking a survey of what everyone else thinks.

  • The rational decision maker (uses all the techniques above), good decisions does not equal good outcomes.

  • Wait and see - until there's only one left or panic sets in.

  • Satisficer: what is good enough but not the best

http://www.analyticalq.com/da/chapter1.htm


Different kinds of decision makers2

Different Kinds of Decision Makers

  • ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY

  • ECAMPUS EMBA

  • Gut feel, no analysis at all, just go for it.  Already convinced without enough evidence.

  • تصمیم گیری به اتفاق آراء

  • تصمیم گیرنده منطقی

  • صبر کن و ببین

  • Satisficer: چه چیزی به اندازه کافی خوب است، اما نه بهتریننیست

http://www.analyticalq.com/da/chapter1.htm


Different kinds of decision makers3

Different Kinds of Decision Makers

  • ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY

  • ECAMPUS EMBA

  • Optimiser: optimisation, aims for the best.

  • Value-focussed Alternative driven: deal prone, variety seeking.

  • Learner vs the abdicator .  The learner wants to understand. 

  • The abdicator pays someone else to decide, to do it

http://www.analyticalq.com/da/chapter1.htm


Different kinds of decision makers4

Different Kinds of Decision Makers

  • ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY

  • ECAMPUS EMBA

  • Optimiser: بهینه سازی.

  • Value-focussed Alternative driven: deal prone, variety seeking. تنوع طلبی

  • Learner vs the abdicator .  یادگیرنده می خواهدبفهمد

  • The abdicator pays someone else to decide, to do it

http://www.analyticalq.com/da/chapter1.htm


The scope of decision making

The Scope of Decision Making

  • Individual

    decision making

  • Group

    decision making

  • Organizational

    decision making

  • Meta organizational

    decision making

http://varsityeduinfo.com/decision-making/


The scope of decision making1

The Scope of Decision Makingحوزه تصمیم گیری

تصمیم گیری فردی

تصمیم گیری گروهی

تصمیم گیری سازمانی

تصمیم گیری فراسازمانی

  • Individual

    decision making

  • Group

    decision making

  • Organizational

    decision making

  • Meta organizational

    decision making

http://varsityeduinfo.com/decision-making/


Everything managers do involves making decisions

Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions…

  • What do we want to achieve?

  • What are our goals?

  • What are the main opportunities and risks we face?

  • What competitive strategy should we pursue?

Planning


Everything managers do involves making decisions1

Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions…

Planning

  • What do we want to achieve?

  • What are our goals?

  • What are the main opportunities and risks we face?

  • What competitive strategy should we pursue?

کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند.

طراحی

  • به چه چیزی می خواهیم دست بیابیم؟

  • اهداف ما چیست؟

  • فرصت های اصلی و خطرات پیش روی ما چه می باشند؟

  • چه استراتژی رقابتی را باید دنبال کنیم؟


Everything managers do involves making decisions2

…Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions…

  • What are the main tasks we have to accomplish?

  • How should we divide up the work that needs to be done?

  • Should I make these decisions or let subordinates make them?

  • How should we make sure the work is coordinated?

Organizing


Everything managers do involves making decisions3

…Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions…

Organizing

  • What are the main tasks we have to accomplish?

  • How should we divide up the work that needs to be done?

  • Should I make these decisions or let subordinates make them?

  • How should we make sure the work is coordinated?

کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند.

سازماندهی

  • وظایف اصلی ما برای به انجام رساندن چه هستند؟

  • تقسیم کاری چگونه باید انجام شود؟

  • آیا باید این تصمیم گیری هارا خودمان انجام دهیم یا به زیردستان اجازه دهیم؟

  • چگونه باید مطمئن شویم که کار هماهنگ است؟


Everything managers do involves making decisions4

Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions

  • What leadership style should I use in this situation?

  • Why is this employee doing what he or she is doing?

  • How should I motivate this employee?

  • How can I get this team to perform better?

Leading


Everything managers do involves making decisions5

Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions

Leading

  • What leadership style should I use in this situation?

  • Why is this employee doing what he or she is doing?

  • How should I motivate this employee?

  • How can I get this team to perform better?

کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند.

رهبری

  • چه سبک رهبری باید در این وضعیت استفاده کنم؟

  • چرا این کارمند کارهایی را که دیگری انجام داده است انجام میدهد؟

  • چگونه میتوانم در این کارمند ایجاد انگیزه کنم؟

  • چگونه می توانم این تیم را به بهترشدن راهنمایی کنم؟


Everything managers do involves making decisions6

…Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions

  • How am I going to control this activity?

  • Are the goals on which these controls are based out of date?

  • Does this performance deviation merit corrective action?

Controlling


Everything managers do involves making decisions7

…Everything Managers Do InvolvesMaking Decisions

Controlling

  • How am I going to control this activity?

  • Are the goals on which these controls are based out of date?

  • Does this performance deviation merit corrective action?

کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند.

کنترل

  • چگونه میتوانم این فعالیت را کنترل کنم ؟

  • آیا اهدافی که در این کنترل ها دنبال میکنم به روز هستند؟

  • آیا این شایستگی انحراف ازعملکرد ، اقدامی اصلاحی است؟


Types of problems decisions

Types of Problems & Decisions

Well-Structured Problems - straightforward, familiar, and easily defined

Programmed Decisions - used to address structured problems

minimize the need for managers to use discretion

facilitate organizational efficiency

http://www.fbe.hku.hk/doc/courses/ug/2011-2012/BUSI1007E.F/Decision_Making_week5.ppt


Types of problems decisions1

Types of Problems & Decisions

Well-Structured Problems - straightforward, familiar, and easily defined

Programmed Decisions - used to address structured problems

minimize the need for managers to use discretion

facilitate organizational efficiency

  • انواع مشکلات و تصمیم گیری ها

  • مشکلات خوش ساخت - ساده، آشنا و به راحتی تعریف شده

  • تصمیم گیری برنامه ریزی شده - برای رسیدگی به مشکلات ساخت یافته استفاده می شود

  • به حداقل رساندن نیاز به استفاده از اختیارات مدیران

  • تسهیل بهره وری سازمانی

http://www.fbe.hku.hk/doc/courses/ug/2011-2012/BUSI1007E.F/Decision_Making_week5.ppt


Types of problems and decisions

Types of Problems and Decisions

Poorly-Structured Problems - new, unusual problems for which information is ambiguous or incomplete

Nonprogrammed Decisions - used to address poorly- structured problems

produce a custom-made response

more frequent among higher-level managers

Procedure, Rule, & Policy

http://www.fbe.hku.hk/doc/courses/ug/2011-2012/BUSI1007E.F/Decision_Making_week5.ppt


Types of problems and decisions1

Types of Problems and Decisions

Poorly-Structured Problems - new, unusual problems for which information is ambiguous or incomplete

Nonprogrammed Decisions - used to address poorly- structured problems

produce a custom-made response

more frequent among higher-level managers

Procedure, Rule, & Policy

  • انواع مشکلات و تصمیم گیری ها

  • مشکلات کم ساخت یافته - مشکلات جدید وغیر معمول که اطلاعات آنها مبهم و یا ناقص است

  • تصمیم گیری های غیر برنامه ریزی شده - برای رسیدگی به مشکلات کم ساخت یافته استفاده می شود

  • تولید یک پاسخ سفارشی

  • در میان مدیران سطح بالاتر شایعتر است

  • دستورالعمل ، قانون، و سیاست

http://www.fbe.hku.hk/doc/courses/ug/2011-2012/BUSI1007E.F/Decision_Making_week5.ppt


Types of problems level in the organization

Types of Problems & Level In the Organization

Ill-structured

Top

Type of

Problem

Level in

Organization

Lower

Well-structured

Programmed

Decisions

Nonprogrammed

Decisions

http://www.fbe.hku.hk/doc/courses/ug/2011-2012/BUSI1007E.F/Decision_Making_week5.ppt


Types of problems level in the organization1

Types of Problems & Level In the Organization

Ill-structured

Top

Type of

Problem

Level in

Organization

Lower

Well-structured

Programmed

Decisions

تصمیمات ساخت یافته

Nonprogrammed

Decisions

تصمیمات غیرساخت یافته

http://www.fbe.hku.hk/doc/courses/ug/2011-2012/BUSI1007E.F/Decision_Making_week5.ppt


Group decision making

Group Decision Making

The goal in group decision making is to ensure that the group makes the best decision they can; based on all the information they have; as quickly as possible; with the right level of participation and commitment.   However, often this goal is not achieved.  Many decisions made in groups are neither thoughtful nor inclusive.     Group decision making takes time and is not appropriate for every decision.  Including people in decision making will strengthen their understanding of the rationale for the decision, build commitment and produce better quality decisions.   One word of caution - if you have a complex or critical decision to make across a large or challenging group, use the services of a professional facilitator.

Group dynamics can be challenging, and the following points are designed to help you work with a group more effectively, not train you in professional facilitation. (If need to make complex or critical decisions with large groups or there are diverse opinions and challenging dynamics bring in a professional facilitator to manage the process and support the leadership role.)


Group decision making1

Group Decision Making

The goal in group decision making is to ensure that the group makes the best decision they can; based on all the information they have; as quickly as possible; with the right level of participation and commitment.   However, often this goal is not achieved.  Many decisions made in groups are neither thoughtful nor inclusive.     Group decision making takes time and is not appropriate for every decision.  Including people in decision making will strengthen their understanding of the rationale for the decision, build commitment and produce better quality decisions.   One word of caution - if you have a complex or critical decision to make across a large or challenging group, use the services of a professional facilitator.

Group dynamics can be challenging, and the following points are designed to help you work with a group more effectively, not train you in professional facilitation. (If need to make complex or critical decisions with large groups or there are diverse opinions and challenging dynamics bring in a professional facilitator to manage the process and support the leadership role.)


Final exam

تصمیم گیری گروهی

هدف در تصمیم گیری گروهی این است که مطمئن شوند گروه بهترین تصمیمی را که می تواند اتخاذ خواهد کرد ، بر اساس همه اطلاعاتی که دارند ، در سریع ترین زمان و با مناسبترین میزان مشارکت و پایبندی و تعهد.

هر چند اغلب این هدف کسب نمی شود. بسیاری از تصمیماتی که در گروه اتخاذ می شود همه ابعاد را در نظر نمی گیرند. تصمیم گیری گروهی زمان بر است و برای بسیاری از تصمیم ها مناسب نیست.البته تصمیم گیری گروهی موجب نیرومند شدن درک عقلانی اشخاص برای تصمیم گیری ، ایجاد پای بندی و تعهد و تولید تصمیماتی با بهترین کیفیت می شود. لازمست در نظر داشته باشید که اگر شما تصمیم گیری پیچیده ای دارید ازخدمات مشاورین حرفه ای بهره گیری نمائید


Final exam

AGM


Some helpful tips

Some Helpful Tips

  • Keeping the meeting in order

  • How well the meeting runs depends on the people at the meeting, as well as the Chair.

  • It makes a Chair’s job easier if the setting has agreed some basic rules about how they want the meetings to work – think about discussing this in your setting.

https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf


Some helpful tips1

Some Helpful Tips

  • Decisions

  • Before a decision is made, or you move on to another item, check that everyone has had their say.

https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf


Some helpful tips2

Some Helpful Tips

  • Getting through the business

  • Keep an eye on the time, and remind the rest of the meeting – e.g.

  • “we need to move on if we are going to cover all the other business. We need to make a decision about...our options are.”

https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf


Some helpful tips3

Some Helpful Tips

  • Drawing it all together

    • At the end of a discussion, summarise the main points and what has been decided.

    • If the meeting has agreed to do something, make sure you’ve also agreed who is going to do it.

    • Make sure the minute taker has had time to take down the decision and who will do it.

https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf


Some things to avoid

Some things to avoid

  • Some things to avoid

  • Don’t use your position to push your view

    Don’t talk too much yourself

    Don’t let someone talk a lot because they are your friend or you are a bit wary of them

    Don’t ignore people who want to speak

https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf


Negotiation

NEGOTIATION


Why do negotiations fail

Why do negotiations fail?

  • make this a single-issue process - “price agreement or nothing”

  • be single-intention when considering a particular element, such as price, “this price, no lower/no higher or nothing”

  • horse trade - unless of course, you are selling a horse

  • unveil or limits too early - or bluff on those limits


Final exam

چرا مذاکرات با شکست روبه رو می شوند؟

  • 1-مذاکره را به صورت یک فرآیند ِ یک موضوعه درآورید برای مثال توافق بر سر قیمت یا عدم توافق.

  • 2- زمانی که یک آیتم خاص را در نظر گرفتید نسبت به آن یک تمایل یک سویه اتخاذ نمایید، برای مثال در مورد قیمت یک قیمت ثابت، نه پایین تر ، نه بالاتر و نه هیچ گزینه ی دیگر در نظر داشته باشید.

  • 3- تجارت اسب راه بیندازید مگر اینکه البته در حال فروش یک اسب باشید.

  • 4- در اسرع وقت از مسائل رونمایی کنید و حدودی را تعیین نمایید یا اینکه با اغراق، محدودیتهای موجود را قوت بخشید.


Stages of negotiation

Stages of Negotiation

  • Preparation

  • Discussion

  • Clarification of goals

  • Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome

  • Agreement

  • Implementation of a course of action

http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/negotiation.html


Stages of negotiation1

Stages of Negotiation

  • Preparation

  • Discussion

  • Clarification of goals

  • Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome

  • Agreement

  • Implementation of a course of action

  • آماده سازی

  • مذاکره

  • روشن سازی اهداف

  • مذاکره در جهت نتیجه برد – برد

  • موافقت

  • اجرا واقدام در یک دوره

http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/negotiation.html


Negotiation styles

Negotiation Styles

  • Accommodating

  • Avoiding

  • Collaborating

  • Competing

  • Compromising

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negotiation


Negotiation styles1

Negotiation Styles

روشهای مذاکره

  • موافقت – تطبیق

  • دوری کردن

  • همکاری

  • رقابت کردن

  • توافق – مصالحه

  • Accommodating

  • Avoiding

  • Collaborating

  • Competing

  • Compromising

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negotiation


Preparing for a successful negotiation

Preparing for a Successful Negotiation

  • Goals

  • Trades

  • Alternatives

  • Relationships

  • Expected outcomes

  • The consequences

  • Power

  • Possible solutions

http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/NegotiationSkills.htm


Preparing for a successful negotiation1

Preparing for a Successful Negotiation

  • Goals

  • Trades

  • Alternatives

  • Relationships

  • Expected outcomes

  • The consequences

  • Power

  • Possible solutions

  • اهداف

  • داد و ستد

  • چاره – شق دیگر – جایگزین

  • ارتباط

  • انتظار نتایج

  • دست آورد – اثر

  • قدرت

  • نتایج امکان پذیر

http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/NegotiationSkills.htm


11 body language essentials for negotiation

11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

If you aren't in control of your body language, it doesn't matter how much you've prepared for a negotiation. Here are some top tips.

Commanding body language is an essential business tactic and has been studied for years--but mastering it can be a challenge

http://www.inc.com/11-body-language-essentials-for-your-next-negotiation.html


11 body language essentials for negotiation1

11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

مهم نیست که چقدر شما برای مذاکره آماده اید اگر کنترل زبان بدن شما در دستانتان نباشد تاکتیک فرماندهی زبان بدن برای کسب و کار ضروری است و سالها است که مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است - اما تسلط بر آن می تواند یک چالش باشد

If you aren't in control of your body language, it doesn't matter how much you've prepared for a negotiation. Here are some top tips.

Commanding body language is an essential business tactic and has been studied for years--but mastering it can be a challenge

http://www.inc.com/11-body-language-essentials-for-your-next-negotiation.html


11 body language essentials for negotiation2

11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

Mirror Their Actions

Nod Your Head

Pay Attention to Your Hands

Plant Your Feet

Relax Your Body

http://www.inc.com/11-body-language-essentials-for-your-next-negotiation.html


11 body language essentials for negotiation3

نکات ضروری در زبان بدن:اعمال طرف مقابل را مانند اینه مونیتور کنید

به حرکات دستانتان توجه کنید

حرکات پاهایتان را تحخت نظر بگیرید

آرامش بدن شما مهم ست

11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

Mirror Their Actions

Nod Your Head

Pay Attention to Your Hands

Plant Your Feet

Relax Your Body

http://www.inc.com/11-body-language-essentials-for-your-next-negotiation.html


11 body language essentials for negotiation4

11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

Remember to Smile

Keep an Open Posture

Hide Your Nerves

Keep a Poker Face

Show Your Patience

Hold Eye Contact

http://www.inc.com/11-body-language-essentials-for-your-next-negotiation.html


11 body language essentials for negotiation5

به یاد داشته باش لبخند بزناضطرابت را مخفی نگه دار

پوکر فیس باش صبر و شکیبایی نشان بده نگه داشتن تماس چشمی با مخاطب

11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

Remember to Smile

Keep an Open Posture

Hide Your Nerves

Keep a Poker Face

Show Your Patience

Hold Eye Contact

http://www.inc.com/11-body-language-essentials-for-your-next-negotiation.html


How to make a successful negotiation

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

Negotiation exists in many situations in human life.

Negotiation is not found only in businesses; it is often necessary to make decisions with friends, family and yourself.

When you're skilled in negotiation, you can build trust and good relationships. The most important tips are here.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation1

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

  • http://careergirlnetwork.com/what-matters-most-to-you-in-a-negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation2

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

1- Ask yourself questions.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation3

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

2- Be confident, courteous, calm, and curious.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation4

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

3- Come up with a win-win solution.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation5

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

4- Aspire for greatness. 

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation6

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

5- Think about your alternatives.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation7

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

6- Map your range.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation8

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

7- Map their range.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


How to make a successful negotiation9

How to Make a Successful Negotiation

8- Reach an agreement.

  • http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Successful-Negotiation/


The win win strategy

The Win/Win Strategy

1- Preparing for the negation

  • Know your goals

  • Set floor and ceiling

  • Know your authority limits

  • Fix a meeting

  • http://ezinearticles.com/?Negotiation:-The-Win-Win-Strategy&id=149314


The win win strategy1

The Win/Win Strategy

2- Negotiating Process

  • Generating the best deal for you

  • Communicate directly to concerned stakeholder

  • Let them speak first

  • Setting wins conditions of

    the other party

  • Be trust worthy

  • http://ezinearticles.com/?Negotiation:-The-Win-Win-Strategy&id=149314


The win win strategy2

The Win/Win Strategy

3- The aftermath of negotiation

  • Nothing should be considered as a full and final in any agreement

  • Analyze the negotiation

  • http://ezinearticles.com/?Negotiation:-The-Win-Win-Strategy&id=149314


Batna

BATNA

  • The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement.


Identify and use your batna

Identify and Use your BATNA

  • Know your BATNA

    • Focus on what you want to achieve and the different ways to accomplish this

  • Strengthen your BATNA

    • Construct your BATNA to be more achievable, probable, or satisfying more of your interests

    • Improves your confidence during the negotiation

  • Consider other side’s BATNA

    • Make their BATNA less attractive to them

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=negotiation%20ppt&source=web&cd=16&ved=0CGAQFjAFOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uh.edu%2F~wagon%2FLR_09.ppt&ei=ieJhU4bzAYXCtAbNyYDYDA&usg=AFQjCNGcb2HE_3w-4s2fSdQ5ag-EKOpQiw&bvm=bv.65788261,d.Yms&cad=rja


Options and batna

Options and BATNA

  • Note the difference

  • Options

  • “Inside” the negotiation

  • Created with counterpart

  • Brainstorming session

  • Potential solution(s)

  • BOTH you and counterpart receive benefit

  • BATNA

  • “Outside” the negotiation

  • Fall back position if negotiation fails

  • Can be implemented unilaterally

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=negotiation%20ppt&source=web&cd=16&ved=0CGAQFjAFOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uh.edu%2F~wagon%2FLR_09.ppt&ei=ieJhU4bzAYXCtAbNyYDYDA&usg=AFQjCNGcb2HE_3w-4s2fSdQ5ag-EKOpQiw&bvm=bv.65788261,d.Yms&cad=rja


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