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Rise of Islam Islam Today Developed after Christianity 1/5 of the world population are Muslims Millions go to the holy city of Mecca to pray Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world TODAY Most Muslims today are Sunni (90%)

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Islam Today

  • Developed after Christianity

  • 1/5 of the world population are Muslims

  • Millions go to the holy city of Mecca to pray

  • Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world


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TODAY

  • Most Muslims today are Sunni (90%)

  • Most Shiites live in Iran, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen

  • Most Shiites have split into different groups


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Way of Life

  • No pork

  • No alcohol

  • Friday afternoon worship

  • No religious authority

  • Worship Allah


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Emerged from Arabian Peninsula

  • Desert areas, farming only good on the oasis (fertile areas watered by natural well or spring)

  • One oasis town – Mecca

    • Good marketplace

    • Good trading routes


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Muhammad

  • Born in Mecca ( a trading city ) about 570

  • About 40 years old went to meditate

  • Heard the voice of the angel Gabriel, messenger of God calling to him

  • Wife encouraged Muhammad to accept the “call”

  • Birth of Islam meaning “submission”

  • “Allah” translates to god


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Turning Point

  • At first a few people listened to Muhammad

  • Some feared teachings disrupted trading in the city

  • Threaten to be murdered Muhammad went on a hijra (journey)


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Text

  • Quran

  • States that people are responsible for their own actions

  • Everyone will stand before God on judgment day

  • Rules on how to live life


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5 Pillars

  • 1. Declaration of Faith – “no god but God”

    • MONOTHESTIC

  • 2. Daily Prayer – Face Mecca, 5x

  • 3. Give to Charity – Education or Social Services

  • 4. Fast – Sunrise to Sunset during Ramadan

  • 5. Hajj – Journey to Mecca


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Islam and Women

  • Made more equal to a man

    • Education

    • Marriage and right to property

    • Daughters protected from death


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Spread of Islam

  • Remember the Battle of Tours 732

    • Martel stopped advance into Western Europe

  • Weakened Byzantine Empire; Islam spread quickly along Middle East and North Africa

  • Conquering lands

    • Non Muslims taxed but allowed to practice own religions

    • Many converted due to simple message


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Remember the Crusades

  • Muslims led by Saladin

  • Fighting over the holy land Jerusalem

  • As territories spread divisions occurred


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Sunni

Wanted to choose their leader

Felt they should follow Muhammad’s example

Believe that the Shiite destroyed the meaning of the Quran

Shiite

Felt their leader should be direct decedents from Muhammad

Do not recognize authority of the Sunni

Claimed the Sunni destroyed the meaning of the Quran

Grew to admire martyrdom as a demonstration of their faith

Divisions within Islam


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Sunni

Later a part of Ottoman Empire

Eastern Europe to Middle East to North Africa

Shiite

Later a part of the Safavid Empire

Iran Territory

New Military Technology Created New Empires


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Both

Belief in one true God

Quran

Hajj to Mecca


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Muslim Society

  • Social Mobility – able to move in social classes

    • Not available during feudalism

  • Muslims not slaves, converted children free

  • TRADING

    • Africa, China, India, Egypt, Europe, Russia

    • “luxury goods”

    • Use of Checks


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Golden Age of Muslim Culture

  • 830 “House of Wisdom” set up in Baghdad – greatest center of Muslim learning


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Art & Literature

  • No religious art (no icons)

  • Architects adapted domes and arches from Byzantine

  • Large mosque (Muslim place of worship) Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem


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Muslims and Medicine

  • Test before could practice

  • Built hospitals

  • Advances

    • Cataracts

    • Tasteful syrups in Rx

    • PDR


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Muslims on the Move

  • Enter Europe through Sicily and Spain

  • Crusades

  • India


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Hindus in India

  • Defeated Hindu armies

  • Sultan (Muslim ruler) made Delhi his capital

  • Many lower caste members converted to Islam?

    • No slavery

    • Move upward in social system

    • Prevented their death



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-REVIEW-

Hindu

Evolved over thousands of years

polytheistic

Icons

Many sacred texts (Vedas)

Muslim

“newer religion”

monotheistic

NO icons

One sacred text (Quran)

Rejected Caste system

Differences


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With Muslim expansion and new territories gained, nations in the west will soon challenge its power!!!!


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