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What is chemical digestion?. Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino acids. Proteins and amino acids are different substances. Where does chemical digestion occur and name the enzyme found in each location.

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what is chemical digestion
What is chemical digestion?
  • Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks
  • REQUIRES ENZYMES
  • Example: Proteins broken down into amino acids. Proteins and amino acids are different substances.
where does chemical digestion occur and name the enzyme found in each location
Where does chemical digestion occur and name the enzyme found in each location
  • Mouth- salivary amylase
  • Stomach - pepsin
  • Small intestine- amylase, lipase, protease
what is mechanical digestion
What is mechanical digestion?
  • Food is broken into smaller pieces by teeth or churning
  • Big protein molecules broken down into smaller protein molecules
  • Big fat molecules broken down into smaller fat molecules
what types of organisms do cell respiration

What types of organisms do cell respiration?

All Living things- grass, trees, birds, dogs, cats, gorillas, monkeys, bugs, etc etc.

give an example of a catalyst

Give an example of a catalyst

Any enzyme!

Catalysts are things that speed up reactions

what is the equation for a catalyzed reaction

What is the equation for a catalyzed reaction?

Enzyme + substrate --> enzyme + product

*** the substrate is what is broken down into product (example: H202 broken into H20 and O2

can enzymes ever be used up

Can enzymes ever be used up?

NO. Enzymes are never used up and are not changed from reactions.

how many substrates can an enzyme work on

How many substrates can an enzyme work on?

ONE! Enzymes are specific, they only attach to one substrate. Just like a key only goes with one lock.

what had a faster reaction raw or cooked liver why

What had a faster reaction- raw or cooked liver? Why?

Raw liver. Liver has enzymes in it. Cooked liver means the liver was in heat. Heat causes enzymes to denature which means they lose their shape. Enzymes must have an exact shape (like a key) to work

what conditions have an impact on how well enzymes work

What conditions have an impact on how well enzymes work?

pH (acidity and basic) and temperature. Enzymes like to be in a certain range. If enzymes are in environments that are too hot, too cold, too acidic or too basic they won’t work as well and might not work at all

in the lab what items had catalase hydrogen peroxidase in them

In the lab, what items had catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) in them?

Catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) is an enzyme. All enzymes are found in living things. So they would be found in: raw liver and cooked liver

slide15

Hydrogen peroxide is made by reactions in our body and is dangerous to our cells. It must be broken down by the enzyme hydrogen peroxidase

what order does food travel through the digestive tract beginning with the mouth

What order does food travel through the digestive tract beginning with the mouth?

Mouth then esophagus then stomach then small intestine then large intestine then rectum then anus

what are the 3 major groups of nutrients

What are the 3 major groups of nutrients?

Carbohydrates, lipids (fat), protein

are vitamins and minerals considered nutrients where are they absorbed

Are vitamins and minerals considered nutrients? Where are they absorbed?

They are not nutrients because they do not have calories

They are absorbed in the large intestine

the places where no digestion occur

The places where no digestion occur

Esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, large intestine, rectum

slide37

In this spot, nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars are small enough to pass into villi

Small intestine

this is a triple threat proteins lipids and carbs can be broken down chemically here

This is a triple threat- proteins, lipids and carbs can be broken down chemically here

Small intestine

what is the flap that covers the opening to the wind pipe trachea when you are swallowing food

What is the flap that covers the opening to the wind pipe (trachea) when you are swallowing food?

Epiglottis

here you can only find simple sugars

Here you can only find simple sugars

Mouth (because in mouth ONLY carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase)

here you can find amino acids fatty acids and simple sugars

Here you can find amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars

Small intestine (because carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase; proteins are broken down into amino acids by protease and lipids broken down into fatty acids by lipase)

this is where proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin

This is where proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin

Stomach because enzyme pepsin is made by stomach

is bile an enzyme what does it break down

Is bile an enzyme? What does it break down?

NO; it breaks down fats by mechanical digestion. It takes big lipids (fats) and turns them into smaller pieces of lipid (fat)

this is where carbs are broken down into simple sugars by the enzyme pancreatic amylase

This is where carbs are broken down into simple sugars by the enzyme pancreatic amylase

Small intestine

how do enzymes cause reactions to go faster

How do enzymes cause reactions to go faster?

They lower the energy needed for the reaction to start (enzymes lower the activation energy)

slide63

What is the building block of carbs? (another way of asking that is…what are carbs broken down into by enzymes?)

Simple sugars

what is enzyme specificity

What is enzyme specificity?

1 enzyme for every substrate

how are photosynthesis and respiration related

How are photosynthesis and respiration related?

They are opposites. The products of one are the reactants of the other

slide70

What is the building block of lipids? (another way of asking that is… what are lipids broken down into by enzymes?)

Fatty acids

slide71

What is the building block of proteins? (another way of asking that is…what are proteins broken down into by enzymes?)

Amino acids

what types of living things can do photosynthesis

What types of living things can do photosynthesis?

Organisms that have chloroplasts- autotrophs - trees, grass. Flowers, plants, etc.

which 2 steps of respiration are aerobic

Which 2 steps of respiration are aerobic?

Krebs and Electron transport chain (because aerobic means requires oxygen)

which 2 steps of respiration require oxygen

Which 2 steps of respiration require oxygen?

Krebs and electron transport chain

what are the 3 steps of respiration and how much atp do they make

What are the 3 steps of respiration and how much ATP do they make?

Glycolysis makes 2 ATP 2) kreb s makes 2 and 3) electron transport chain makes 34 ATP

during anaerobic respiration no oxygen present what happens

During anaerobic respiration (no oxygen present) what happens?

Instead of the krebs cycle and electron transport chain, glucose is changed into lactate (lactic acid)

what cells do respiration where does it take place

What cells do respiration? Where does it take place?

Animal and plant cells. All living things do respiration! Mitochondria

what are the products of respiration

What are the products of respiration?

Carbon dioxide, 38 ATP, water

what are 3 things that effects photosynthesis

What are 3 things that effects photosynthesis?

Temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity

how much atp does each step of respiration produce

How much ATP does each step of respiration produce?

Glycolysis gives 2 ATP

Krebs cycle gives two

Electron transport chain gives 34

what happens in glycolysis

What happens in glycolysis?

Goes in : Glucose (C-C-C-C-C-C) a 6 carbon molecule is split into 2. Each new molecule C-C-C is called pyruvate

what is correct order of aerobic oxygen respiration

What is correct order of aerobic (oxygen) respiration?

Glycolysis, krebs, and electron transport chain

what is anaerobic respiration

What is anaerobic respiration?

No oxygen available, glycolysis keeps repeating over and over

atp is produced during which steps of cell respiration

ATP is produced during which steps of cell respiration?

Glycolysis, krebs and electron transport

which step s of respiration require chloroplasts

Which step(s) of respiration require chloroplasts?

None. Chloroplasts is for photosynthesis. Respiration occurs in mitochondria

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