What is chemical digestion?. Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino acids. Proteins and amino acids are different substances. Where does chemical digestion occur and name the enzyme found in each location.
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What types of organisms do cell respiration?
All Living things- grass, trees, birds, dogs, cats, gorillas, monkeys, bugs, etc etc.
Give an example of a catalyst
Catalysts are things that speed up reactions
In this sentence what does catalyze mean?How do enzymes catalyze reactions?
What is the equation for a catalyzed reaction?
Enzyme + substrate --> enzyme + product
*** the substrate is what is broken down into product (example: H202 broken into H20 and O2
Can enzymes ever be used up?
NO. Enzymes are never used up and are not changed from reactions.
How many substrates can an enzyme work on?
ONE! Enzymes are specific, they only attach to one substrate. Just like a key only goes with one lock.
What had a faster reaction- raw or cooked liver? Why?
Raw liver. Liver has enzymes in it. Cooked liver means the liver was in heat. Heat causes enzymes to denature which means they lose their shape. Enzymes must have an exact shape (like a key) to work
What conditions have an impact on how well enzymes work?
pH (acidity and basic) and temperature. Enzymes like to be in a certain range. If enzymes are in environments that are too hot, too cold, too acidic or too basic they won’t work as well and might not work at all
In the lab, what items had catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) in them?
Catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) is an enzyme. All enzymes are found in living things. So they would be found in: raw liver and cooked liver
Hydrogen peroxide is made by reactions in our body and is dangerous to our cells. It must be broken down by the enzyme hydrogen peroxidase
What order does food travel through the digestive tract beginning with the mouth?
Mouth then esophagus then stomach then small intestine then large intestine then rectum then anus
What are the 3 major groups of nutrients?
Carbohydrates, lipids (fat), protein
Where are the salivary glands located?
This connects mouth to stomach
This is the place where most absorption and digestion takes place
This is under the stomach and makes enzymes
The first place where carbs are broken down chemically by enzymes
This is where peristalsis occurs
This is where wastes are produced
Here you can find villi
This produces bile
Where are carbs broken down by salivary amylase?
Are vitamins and minerals considered nutrients? Where are they absorbed?
They are not nutrients because they do not have calories
They are absorbed in the large intestine
The places where no digestion occur
Esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, large intestine, rectum
This is the place where churning occurs
This is where vitamins and minerals are absorbed
Here you find little fingerlike projections that absorb nutrients
What enzyme breaks carbs down chemically into simple sugars?
Last place where digestion occurs
This is where wastes are stored right before they exit the body
In this spot, nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars are small enough to pass into villi
This is where reabsorption of water occurs
This is where any extra water is removed before it exits the body
This is a triple threat- proteins, lipids and carbs can be broken down chemically here
Pepper, mustard, horseradish, nicotine, coffee and alcohol irritate this
What is the flap that covers the opening to the wind pipe (trachea) when you are swallowing food?
This structure is under the stomach and is important for making enzymes
Here you can only find simple sugars
Mouth (because in mouth ONLY carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase)
Here you can find amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars
Small intestine (because carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase; proteins are broken down into amino acids by protease and lipids broken down into fatty acids by lipase)
The place where waves of muscular contractions move food
This structure makes the enzymes protease, amylase and lipase
This is where proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin
Stomach because enzyme pepsin is made by stomach
The name for the mushy ball of food that leaves your mouth and goes down the esophagus
This is the place where ONLY proteins can broken down by enzymes
Is bile an enzyme? What does it break down?
NO; it breaks down fats by mechanical digestion. It takes big lipids (fats) and turns them into smaller pieces of lipid (fat)
This is where carbs are broken down into simple sugars by the enzyme pancreatic amylase
This structure makes 3 enzymes that it releases into the small intestine
The 2 places where both chemical and mechanical digestion occur
Mouth and stomach
Proteins are broken by pepsin in this location
How do enzymes cause reactions to go faster?
They lower the energy needed for the reaction to start (enzymes lower the activation energy)
This is where lipids are broken down into fatty acids by the enzyme lipase
Where you can find gastric juice
This is the place where ONLY CHEMICAL digestion occurs
What are the 3 biomolecules (nutrients)?
Proteins, lipids, carbs
All digestion finishes in this location
Empties bile into the small intestine
What is the building block of carbs? (another way of asking that is…what are carbs broken down into by enzymes?)
What is enzyme specificity?
1 enzyme for every substrate
Breaks down proteins in the small intestine
Is H202 (hydrogen peroxide) or catalase the enzyme?
This enzyme is found in mouth and small intestine
What letters do enzymes end in?
How are photosynthesis and respiration related?
They are opposites. The products of one are the reactants of the other
What is the building block of lipids? (another way of asking that is… what are lipids broken down into by enzymes?)
What is the building block of proteins? (another way of asking that is…what are proteins broken down into by enzymes?)
Glucose is an example of which biomolecule (nutrient)?
What is being irritated if you have heartburn?
Which does not change from beginning of a reaction to the end- enzyme or substrate?
Enzyme in the stomach
Fats are also called……
What types of living things can do photosynthesis?
Organisms that have chloroplasts- autotrophs - trees, grass. Flowers, plants, etc.
What does aerobic mean?
Which 2 steps of respiration are aerobic?
Krebs and Electron transport chain (because aerobic means requires oxygen)
Which 2 steps of respiration require oxygen?
Krebs and electron transport chain
What are the 3 steps of respiration and how much ATP do they make?
Glycolysis makes 2 ATP 2) kreb s makes 2 and 3) electron transport chain makes 34 ATP
During anaerobic respiration (no oxygen present) what happens?
Instead of the krebs cycle and electron transport chain, glucose is changed into lactate (lactic acid)
What cells do photosynthesis? Where does it happen?
Plant cells. In the chloroplasts
What cells do respiration? Where does it take place?
Animal and plant cells. All living things do respiration! Mitochondria
What are the parts of the plant and what is each used for
What are the products of respiration?
Carbon dioxide, 38 ATP, water
What are 3 things that effects photosynthesis?
Temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity
What is needed (the reactants) for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide, sun energy, water
What goes into the mitochondria during cell respiration?
Glucose and oxygen
Which step of respiration produces the most ATP?
Electron transport chain
How much ATP does each step of respiration produce?
Glycolysis gives 2 ATP
Krebs cycle gives two
Electron transport chain gives 34
What happens in glycolysis?
Goes in : Glucose (C-C-C-C-C-C) a 6 carbon molecule is split into 2. Each new molecule C-C-C is called pyruvate
What is correct order of aerobic (oxygen) respiration?
Glycolysis, krebs, and electron transport chain
What is anaerobic respiration?
No oxygen available, glycolysis keeps repeating over and over
ATP is produced during which steps of cell respiration?
Glycolysis, krebs and electron transport
Which step(s) of respiration require chloroplasts?
None. Chloroplasts is for photosynthesis. Respiration occurs in mitochondria