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Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism. Presented by Janice Hermann, PhD, RD/LD OCES Adult and Older Adult Nutrition Specialist. What Is Digestion. Process whereby the body breaks down food into absorbable nutrients. Digestive tract is a long tube surrounded by muscles.

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Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism

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Digestion absorption and metabolism l.jpg

Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism

Presented by

Janice Hermann, PhD, RD/LD

OCES Adult and Older Adult Nutrition Specialist


What is digestion l.jpg

What Is Digestion

  • Process whereby the body breaks down food into absorbable nutrients.

  • Digestive tract is a long tube surrounded by muscles.

  • The muscles alternate contracting and relaxing pushing food along.


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Mouth

  • Teeth grind food to reduce the size.

  • Saliva released to help moisten food.

  • Some carbohydrate digestion begins.

  • Tongue pushes food to the back of the mouth to start swallowing reflex.

  • Food passes through the esophagus and enters stomach.


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Stomach

  • Distended pouch. Strong circular muscles at each end control food entering and leaving.

  • Mixes food by muscular contractions causing food to break up further.

  • Secretes hydrochloric acid:

    • Begins protein digestion.

    • Kills microorganisms in food.

  • Nutrients not absorbed except water and alcohol.


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Small Intestine

  • Most digestion and absorption occurs in small intestine.

  • Bile released to emulsify (break up) fat.

  • Pancreatic enzymes released to digest carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

  • Final digestive enzymes in intestinal lining break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats into absorbable units.


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Final Digestion Products

  • Final digestion products absorbed by cells lining small intestine.

    • Carbohydrates:

      • Monosaccharides

    • Proteins:

      • Amino acids

      • Chains of 2 or 3 amino acids

    • Fats:

      • Fatty acids

      • Glycerol

      • Monoglycerides

    • Vitamins, minerals, water and some larger fat-like compounds such as cholesterol are not broken down before they are absorbed.


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Absorption

  • Water-soluble nutrients and short fatty acids released directly into the bloodstream.

  • Longer fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and fat-like compounds such as cholesterol are not water-soluble.

    • Triglycerides reform in intestinal wall.

    • Packaged into a chylomicron and released into lymphatic system.


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Indigestible Matter

  • After digestion and absorption of nutrients, indigestible matter, such as fiber moves into the large intestine.

  • Indigestible matter is compacted by removing water.

  • Little nutrient absorption occurs in large intestine.


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Metabolism

  • Chemical reactions that occur in the body:

    • Building and maintaining body tissues

    • Regulating body functions

    • Supplying energy

  • For metabolism to occur the body needs:

    • Water

    • Energy

    • Oxygen

    • Nutrients


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