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Hittites. Who Were the Hittites?. Ancient Anatolian people Lived in modern day Turkey and Syria Existed in 1750 BCE. Hittite History. Divided into 3 periods Old Hittite Kingdom [1750-1500 BCE] Middle Hittite Kingdom [1500-1430 BCE] New Hittite Kingdom [1430-1180 BCE]. Old Kingdom.

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Hittites

Hittites


Who were the hittites

Who Were the Hittites?

  • Ancient Anatolian people

  • Lived in modern day Turkey and Syria

  • Existed in 1750 BCE


Hittite history

Hittite History

  • Divided into 3 periods

    • Old Hittite Kingdom [1750-1500 BCE]

    • Middle Hittite Kingdom [1500-1430 BCE]

    • New Hittite Kingdom [1430-1180 BCE]

Old Kingdom

New Kingdom

Middle Kingdom


Old hittite kingdom 1750 1500 bce

Old Hittite Kingdom: 1750-1500 BCE

  • Founded by Labarna I or Hattusili I

    • First king

    • Conquered the area of south and north of Hattusa

  • Attacked but did not capture the kingdom Yamkhad

    • The next king, Mursili I, conquered it

    • Responsible for the reintroduction of cuneiform


Old hittite kingdom mursili individuals in history

Old Hittite Kingdom – MursiliIndividuals in History

  • Second King

    • Ruled from 1526-1556 BCE

    • Continued conquering

      • Aleppo in Northern Syria

      • Babylon

        • Ended the dynasty of Hammurabi and the Amorite people

    • Assassinated by his brother-in-law when he came home


The middle kingdom 1500 1430 bce

The Middle Kingdom: 1500-1430 BCE

  • Telepinu last monarch of the Old Kingdom

    • Began the length of weakness phase

    • Started to conduct alliances and write treaties

    • Shows Cooperation and Conflict


The new kingdom

The New Kingdom

  • Tudhaliya I

    • First king of New Kingdom

    • Helped Hittites emerge from the weak phase of darkness

    • Allied with Kizzuwanta and expanded the empire

      • Captured Assuwa [orgin of Asia]


The rise of democratic ideas

The Rise of Democratic Ideas

  • Significantly updated the law they took from the Old Bablyonians

  • Differences:

    1. More merciful

    2. No death penaly for minor crimes

    3. More fines than death

    4. Gave more power to the king

  • Basically everything on the Hittite territory belonged to the king [Monarchy]


The rise of democratic ideas1

The Rise of Democratic Ideas

  • Even though the Hittites had a monarchy, they still helped shape our democracy.


Hittites

Iron

  • Hittites Started the Dawn of the Iron Age

    • First to make tools and weapons out of iron

      • Iron was harder, sharper, and cheaper to make than bronze and copper

    • Tried to keep iron a secret

      • Ironsmiths migrated and hepled other empires by bringing the idea of iron to them


Hittites

Continuity and Change

Changes the way people live

Cultural Development

Helps develop art as well as weapons

Technology in History

First to create it

Impact of Ideas

Influences many others things

Human-Environmental Interaction

Blacksmiths

Iron


Religion

Religion

  • Polytheism

    • Adopted mostly the same gods of the Sumerian people and Old Babylonians

    • Whenever they conquered a group of people they adopt their gods they believed in to their religion


Downfall

Downfall

  • The Assyrians conquered the Hittites

    • Expand to the Euphratyes

    • Take trade routes


Who were they

Who were they?

  • Ancient Anatolian people

  • Language-variation of Indo-European

    (Uncovered in 1906)

  • Used cuneiform, developed from pictographs

  • Center-Hattusa (city)

  • Hittite translates “Son of Heth” (son of canan)


Human geography evironment interaction

Human-Geography/ Evironment Interaction

  • Based in Anatolia(Asia Minor)

  • Hattusa (Khattusha)-capital city

  • Nesa-secondary major city

  • Small amount of farming (warriors), later much more impact of farmlands


History

History

  • Early Hittites: attempt to gain control of metal ore and products trade

  • Conquered Babylon under Murshili I

    (1595 B.C.E)

  • Later war with Egypt (1192 B.C.E)

  • Conquered by Assyria and the “Sea People”, a group of invaders. (1185 B.C.E)


Economy and trade

Economy and Trade

  • Skilled metal workers

  • Grains, vegetables, and fruits

  • Grapes-wine

  • Varied craftspeople

  • Most craftsmen “controlled” by temple 


Economy and trade continued

Economy and Trade (continued)

  • Domesticated animals- ox, sheep, goats, horses, mules, donkeys, pigs, dogs.

  • Goats and sheep made milk and cheese

  • Oxen, horses, mules, and donkeys- beasts of burden

  • Records were written in cuneiform


Cooperation and conflict

Cooperation and Conflict

  • The early Hittites were warlike and often fought surrounding nations, mostly Assyria

  • Tried to remain at peace with Egypt; marriage between kingdoms

  • Changes between distributed power

    and focused power (capital)


Rulers and leadership

Rulers and Leadership

  • Hereditary kings- dominant hereditary monarchy

  • Passed from father to ANY son, not always 1st son

  • Chief priest, acting in place of gods

  • Commander of military

  • Founders of first constitutional monarchy

Notable Kings:

Labarna I-founder

Mursili I-sacked Babylon

Tudhaliya III-killed when

father died

Suppiliuma II-fall of capital


Hittites

Laws

  • 200 paragraphs of laws; nearly as detailed as Hammurabi’s code

  • Defined all crimes

  • 2 versions of the code were found


Religion and worship

Religion and Worship

  • Religion and traditions drew on other cultures

  • Over 100 gods

  • Important gods: Teshub (storms), Khepat (sun)

  • Festivals occurred monthly

  • Believed in afterlife


Technology

Technology

  • Hittites made many innovations in the field of metal working

  • Many people were craftsmen and worked as potters, textile makers, and many other jobs

  • Increased chariot effectiveness


Continuity and change

Continuity and Change

  • Hittites took religions from others

  • Kept what worked (iron), left what didn’t (bronze)


Ideas

Ideas

  • Controlled the market of metal ore and refinement trade

  • Large time use of chariots in wars and travel

  • Sacking of Babylon, leaving it open for invaders for about 100 years

  • Conquered most of Anatolia


The three hittite periods

The Three Hittite Periods

  • Old Hittite Kingdom

    • 1750-1500 BCE

  • Middle Hittite Kingdom

    • 1500-1430 BCE

  • New Hittite Kingdom

    • 1430-1180 BCE


What do we know about the hittites

What do we know about the Hittites?

  • Developed their own language

    • Nesile

      • Through 1100 BCE

  • Wrote in Cuneiform

    • Each civilization had own alteration

    • Found/translated tablets

  • Stupendous Metal Workers


Cultural development

Cultural Development

  • Religion

    • Influenced by Mesopotamian mythology

    • Polytheistic

  • Biblical references

    • Referenced to in the Hebrew bible

      • Lived among Israelites

      • High military officers in King David’s army


Geography

Geography

  • Second largest empire in Mesopotamia

  • Included parts of modern day Syria, Lebanon and Turkey

  • Empire was north of Canaan on the Central Anatolian Plateau

  • Capital was Hattusa (in modern day Turkey)


Social institutions

Social Institutions

  • Royalty

    • King

    • Royal family

    • The pankus (monitered king’s activities)

    • Aristocracy

  • Commoners

    • Merchants

    • farmers

  • Slaves


Government

Government

  • First constitutional monarchy

    • King was leader

  • Produced Hittite laws

    • Less severe alteration of Hammurabi’s code

    • Death was rarely a punishment (murder resulted in a fine)


Individuals in history

Individuals in History

  • Tudhaliya I

    • First emperor

    • Bloodline ran four generations

  • Suppiluliuma I

    • Expanded the empire

    • 1344 to 1322 B.C.E

    • Bloodline ran two generations


Land distribution

Land Distribution

  • King owned all land under his control

    • Individuals were only to allowed control land if served army

  • Resulted in many tenant farmers


Technology1

Technology

  • First to work with Iron

    • Stronger than bronze

    • Abundant in nature

  • Made innovations in weaponry

    • Iron made them stronger


Economics

Economics

  • Economy based on farming

  • Main crops: wheat and barley

  • Livestock: cattle and sheep

  • Lands rich with minerals


Cooperation and conflict1

Cooperation and Conflict

  • Warriors

    • Soldiers kept hair long

    • Referred to by Pharaoh as “women soldiers”

  • Superior weapons

    • Stronger

    • Made of iron


Bibliography

Bibliography

“Hittites.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites>

“The Hittites.” World Civilizations. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008 <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/HITTITES.HTM>

“List of Hittite Kings.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Hittite_kings>


Bibliography cont

Bibliography (cont.)

“Hittites.” Looklex Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. 16 November 2008 <http://lexicorient.com/e.o/hittites.htm>

“History of the Hittites.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 16 November 2008. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittite_empire>

Jantzen, Steven L. and Kreiger, Larry S. and Neil, Kenneth. World History: Perspectives on the Past. Lexington, Massachusetts and Toranto, Ontario: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992.


Bibliography1

Bibliography

  • Wallenfels, The Ancient Near East Volume II. Charles Scribner’s Sons, San Francisco; publishing year 2000

  • Wikipedia.org, Hittites.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites November 13, 2008;


Bibliography2

Bibliography

  • <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hittites>

  • www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/HITTITES.HTM

  • <www.crystalinks.com/hittites.html>


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