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First Aid - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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First Aid Basic First Aid Securing the Scene Before performing any First Aid, Check for: Electrical hazards Chemical hazards Noxious & Toxic gases Ground hazards Fire Unstable equipment Universal Precautions for Airborne & Bloodborn Pathogens HIV & Hepatitis

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Securing the Scene

Before performing any First Aid,

Check for:

  • Electrical hazards

  • Chemical hazards

  • Noxious & Toxic gases

  • Ground hazards

  • Fire

  • Unstable equipment


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Universal Precautions for Airborne & Bloodborn Pathogens

HIV & Hepatitis

Gloves & Respiratory Barrier devise are a must to prevent transmission of diseases

Tuberculosis


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Fundamentals of First Aid

Activate EMS System

1. ABC(airway-breathing-circulation)

2. Control bleeding

3. Treat for Shock (medical emergencies)

4. Open wounds & Burns

5. Fractures & Dislocations

6. Transportation

“Call Out or 911”



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Control of Bleeding

Direct

Pressure

Elevation

Cold Applications

Pressure bandage


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Sources for Consideration

Spurting

Artery

Steady flow

Veins

Capillary

Oozing

Internal Injuries


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Pressure Points

Temporal

Facial

Carotid

Where the artery

passes over a bone close to the skin

Sub-clavian

Brachial

Radial

Ulnar

Femoral

Popliteal

Pedal


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Tourniquet

Absolutelast resort in controlling bleeding. Remember

Life over limb

Once a tourniquet is applied, it is not to be removed , only by a doctor


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Shock

Shock affects all major functions of the body

loss of blood flow to the tissues and organs

Shock must be treated in all accident cases


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Treatment for Shock

Lie victim down if possible

-Face is pale-raise the tail

-Face is red-raise the head

Loosen tight clothing

Keep victim warm and dry

Do not give anything by mouth

Transport!


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Thermal burns

Dry sterile dressing

Cold application

Remove constricting clothing

Treat for shock

TRANSPORT!


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Severe Burns

Send for medical attention.

Cool the burn area with water for 10 to 20minutes.

Lay the casualty down and make him as comfortable as possible, protecting burn area from ground contact.

Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or constricting clothing from the injured area before it begins to swell.

Cover the injured area loosely with sterile unmedicated dressing or similar non fluffy material and bandage.


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Severe Burns

Don't remove anything that is sticking to the burn.

Don't apply lotions, ointments, butter or fat to the injury.

Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere with the injured area.

Don't over-cool the patient and cause shivering.

If breathing and heartbeat stop, begin resuscitation immediately,

If casualty is unconscious but breathing normally, place in the recovery position.

Treat for shock.


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Fractures & Dislocations

Don’t align a break - Unless equipped and trained - treat as found

Must treat for bleeding first

Do not push bones back into place


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Splints

Can be formed to shape of deformity

Must be a straight line break

Be careful of temperature or elevation change


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Neck & Spinal Injuries

  • CARE AND TREATMENT

    ABC's

    extreme care in initial examination — minimal movement

    urgent ambulance transport

    apply cervical collar or support

    treat for shock

    treat any other injuries

    maintain body heat

    if movement required, 'log roll' and use assistants

    always maintain head alignment with the spine


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Lifting Techniques

Two person carry

Lift & roll or log roll

4 person straddle



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