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Formatting Output. #include <stdio.h> void main (void) { printf(“Welcome to”); printf(“London!”); printf(“\nHow do we\njump\n\ntwo lines?\n”); printf(“\n”); printf(“It will rain\ntomorrow\n”); }. Output . Welcome toLondon! How do we Jump two lines? It will rain tomorrow.

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formatting output
Formatting Output

#include <stdio.h>

void main (void)

{

printf(“Welcome to”);

printf(“London!”);

printf(“\nHow do we\njump\n\ntwo lines?\n”);

printf(“\n”);

printf(“It will rain\ntomorrow\n”);

}

output
Output

Welcome toLondon!

How do we

Jump

two lines?

It will rain

tomorrow

what if i want to print a or
What if I want to print a \ or “

printf(“How to print a \\ backslash\n”);

printf(“How to print a \” quote\n”);

c string literals
C String Literals
  • Anything inside double quotes
  • Use \ to break string literal across a line

printf(“This shows how to break \

a string literal across lines\n”);

printf(“This shows how to break “

“a string literal across lines\n”);

more escape sequences 2 4
More Escape Sequences (2.4)
  • Consist of a backslash followed by a letter, symbol, or combination of digits
  • Represents a character that has special meaning or specifies an action
character escape sequences
Character Escape Sequences
  • \0 Null character
  • \a Alert/bell
  • \n New Line
  • \0ddd Octal constant
  • \xddd Hexadecimal constant
  • \Xddd Hexadecimal constant
character escape sequences1
Character Escape Sequences
  • \\ Display a backslash
  • \’ Display a single quote
  • \” Display a double quote
  • \% Display a percent character
  • \? Display a question mark
review of chapter 2
Review of Chapter 2
  • Basic structure of a C program
  • Writing comments
  • Using character escape sequences
  • Displaying special characters
  • C string literals
  • Basic debugging techniques
what are the important features of a c program
What are the important features of a C program
  • The main function name must be main
  • The prog body must start with {
  • The prog body must end with }
  • A C statement must end with ;
  • A C statement is case sensitive
  • A C statement is location insensitive
more c program features
More C program features
  • In general, it is OK to add blank(s) between tokens in a C statement but it is not OK to add blank(s) within a token
  • C uses character escape sequencs for special characters and action
  • Make your comments stand out. Do not hide them.
what is debugging
What is debugging
  • Fixing problems that cause your program to behave unexpectedly.
  • 3 types of programming errors
    • Syntax errors
    • Run-time errors
    • Logic errors
syntax errors
Syntax Errors
  • Violation of C “grammer” rules
  • Typographical mistakes
  • Compile time errors
run time errors
Run-time errors
  • Semantic errors (errors of meaning)
  • Not detected by compiler
  • Violation of the rules during execution of your program
logic errors
Logic errors
  • Most difficult errors to find
  • Program compiles and runs fine it just does not produce the correct results.
  • Is the input data correct?
how to reduce programming errors
How to reduce programming errors
  • Writing your program neatly
  • Adding blank lines at natural locations
  • Lining up your opening and closing braces
  • Add useful comments
  • Build your program in sections (layers)
how to debug your program
How to debug your program
  • Think about debugging up front before you write your program
  • Write your program in layers
  • Look for the obvious syntax errors
    • Correct function names
    • Statement termination
    • Are my parentheses and braces matched up
lets do a debugging example
Lets do a debugging example
  • Program 2.2 Debugging (Page 64)
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