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Circulatory systems. Biology 2: Form and Function. Circulation. Transport of Nutrients Metabolic wastes Metabolic gases Various elements of immunological system Hormonal signals Heat energy. The evolution of circulation in animals.

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circulatory systems

Circulatory systems

Biology 2: Form and Function

  • Transport of
    • Nutrients
    • Metabolic wastes
    • Metabolic gases
    • Various elements of immunological system
    • Hormonal signals
    • Heat energy
the evolution of circulation in animals
The evolution of circulation in animals
  • Primitive animals rely upon diffusion as a mechanism of transport (Porifera, Cnidaria)
  • Diffusion becomes inefficient over distances of 2–3 cells (limits size of Platyhelminthes)
  • Development of a pseudocoelom provided primitive circulatory sac with fluid
  • Eucoelomates (Mollusca onwards) developed true circulatory systems
open and closed circulation
Open and Closed Circulation
  • Open systems (Mollusca, Arthropoda) bathe organs in haemolymph. organs held in secondary spaces (sinuses) that may join together to form haemocoel
  • Closed systems contain circulatory fluid (blood) in a vascular system that feeds individual organs
  • Both open and closed systems require a pump (heart)
  • Hearts have evolved from two, to three, to four chambered systems
  • Human heart powers dual circuit (pulmonary and systemic)
  • EKG reflects complex waveform (systole / diastole)
blood contains
Blood contains...
  • Plasma (dissolved metabolites, wastes, hormones, ions, proteins)
  • Red blood cells (Erythrocytes = O2/CO2 transport)
  • White blood cells:
    • Neutrophils (immune defense)
    • Eosinophils (parasite defense)
    • Basophils (inflammatory response)
    • Monocytes (immune surveillance)
    • B-Lymphocytes (antibody production)
    • T-Lymphocytes (cellular immune response)
    • Platelets (blood clotting)
the lymphatic system
The Lymphatic system
  • Collects fluids and particles in the interstitial fluid primarily the result of capillary leakages
  • Filters fluid at Lymph Nodes, removing foreign substances
  • Foreign substances are subsequently destroyed by white blood cell activity
so what about plants
So what about plants?
  • With developmental complexity came a need for increased circulatory efficiency (cf. Bryophytes versus gymnoperms)
  • Development of vascular tissue in ferns and upwards
  • Presence of vascular tissue, together with development of stronger fibrous support, allowed plants to grow taller and compete for sunlight
types of transportation
Types of transportation
  • Diffusion (small scale only)
  • Root pressure
  • Transpiration
  • In vascular plants, use of
    • Xylem (water and minerals)
    • Phloem (sugars)