Prokaryotic Cell. Eukaryotic Cell. Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food. Heterotrophs must get energy by eating autotrophs or other heterotrophs. Decomposers , aka saprobes , are heterotrophs
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autotrophs or other heterotrophs.
that recycle dead organisms by breaking them
Why use a dead language?
"Formal" scientific names should have a third part, the authority. The authority is not italicized or underlined.
The authority is written as an abbreviation of the last name of the person responsible for naming the organism. Since Carolus Linnaeus was the first person to name many plants, the L. for Linnaeus is very common in plant scientific names.
An example is Quercus alba L.
Phylogeny, the evolutionary history of anorganism, is the cornerstone of a branch of biology called systematic taxonomy.
Systematics, as systematic taxonomy is commonly called, is the study of the evolution of biological diversity.
A phylogenetic tree is a family tree that shows ahypothesis about the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms. It does not show the actual evolutionary history of organisms.
Why a hypothesis?
Phylogenetic trees are usually based on a combination of these lines of evidence:
Adaptive Radiation -
Modifies homologous structures
These animals have evolved similar adaptations
for obtaining food because they occupy similar
niches. What can you infer about their
phylogeny from their geographic locations?
Cladistics- is a relatively new system of phylogenetics classification that uses shared derived characters to establish evolutionary relationships. A derived character is a feature that apparently evolved only within the group under consideration.
What derived character is shared by all the animals on the cladogram on the next slide?
ants are an example
of coevolution. Each
influences the others
Can you think of any
other examples of
“instead of a slow, continuous movement, evolution tends to be characterized by long periods of virtual standstill ("equilibrium"), "punctuated" by episodes of very fast development of new forms”
The "punctuated equilibrium" theory of Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould was proposed as a criticism of the traditional Darwiniantheory of evolution…what is it called?
The Dichotomous Key
A. one pair of wings
B. Two pairs of wings
(several of these have subdivisions)
A group at any level is a taxon.
Phyla are subdivided into classes
Classes are subdivided into orders
Orders are subdivided into families
Families are divided into genera
Genera contain closely related species
Species is unique
Categories within Kingdoms