Cellular Structure and Function
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Cellular Structure and Function. Section 1. Cell Discovery and Theory. Prokaryotic Cell. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus and other internal compartments. They do not contain membrane-bound organelles. Steven P. Lynch. Cellular Structure and Function. Section 1.

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Prokaryotic Cell

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Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 1

Cell Discovery and Theory

Prokaryotic Cell

  • Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus and other internal compartments

  • They do not contain membrane-bound organelles

Steven P. Lynch


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 1

Prokaryotic Cell

  • Prokaryotic cells includes all bacteria

  • Prokaryotes contain only the following structures:

    • Cell wall (peptidoglycan)

    • Plasma membrane

    • Genetic material as a single circular molecule of DNA

    • Ribosomes

    • Cytoplasm

    • Plasmid (Small circular piece of DNA that only some bacteria possess)


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 1

Cell Discovery and Theory

Prokaryotic Cell


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 1

Eukaryotic Cell

  • More complex structure than prokaryotes

  • In addition to the prokaryotic structures, eukaryotes also have membrane bound organelles, including a nucleus


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 1

Cell Discovery and Theory


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 1

Cell Discovery and Theory

Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

The


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 1

The Plasma Membrane

Plasma Membrane

  • Thin, flexible boundary between the cell and its environment

  • Allows nutrients into the cell

  • Allows waste to leave the cell


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 2

The Plasma Membrane

Selective Permeability

  • The plasma membrane controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

  • The plasma membrane is selectively permeable, meaning it chooses what enters and leaves the cell


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 2

The Plasma Membrane

  • The plasma membrane is composed of the phospholipid bilayer.

  • A phospholipid molecule is composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group.


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 2

The Plasma Membrane


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 2

The Plasma Membrane

Fluid Mosaic Model

  • The phospholipid bilayer allows other molecules to “float” in the membrane.

Other Components

  • Proteins

  • Cholesterol

  • Carbohydrates


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 2

The Plasma Membrane

Proteins

  • Transmit signals inside the cell

  • Act as a support structure

  • Provide pathways for substances to enter and leave


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 2


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 3

Structures and Organelles

Plant and Animal Cell Structures

  • Organelles are bodies within the cytoplasm that serve to physically separate the various metabolic reactions that occur within the cells

    • 1. Nucleus7. Mitochondria

    • 2. Ribosomes8. Chloroplasts

    • 3. Endoplasmic reticulum9. Cytoskeleton

    • 4. Golgi Apparatus10. Flagella & Cilia

    • 5. Lysosomes11. Centrioles

    • 6. Peroxisomes12. Vacuoles & Vesicles


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 3

Structures and Organelles


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 3

Structures and Organelles


Nucleus

Cells

Nucleus

  • The nucleus is bounded by the nuclear envelope consisting a phospholipid bilayer, similar to the plasma membrane

  • The nucleus contains the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the heredity information of the cell

    • The nucleus is the brain of the cell


Nucleus1

Cells

Nucleus

  • Also visible within the nucleus are one or more nucleoli, concentrations of DNA in the process of manufacturing the components of ribosomes


Ribosomes

Cells

Ribosomes

  • Ribosomes are manufactured in the nucleus and consist of ribosomal RNA and protein

  • Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis

  • Ribosomes translate genetic information (DNA) into specific polypeptide chains & proteins


Endomembrane system

Endomembrane System

  • Composed of the same phospholipid bilayer as the cell membrane

  • They are membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells

    • Similar to the organs of our bodies

  • Endomembrane systems only occur in eukaryotic cells


Endomembrane system1

Endomembrane System

  • Components of the endomembrane system:

    • Nuclear envelope

    • Endoplasmic reticulum

    • Mitochondria (has 2 lipid bilayers)

    • Chloroplasts (has 2 lipid bilayers)

    • Golgi apparatus

    • Lysosomes

    • Vacuoles

    • Vesicles


Endoplasmic reticulum

Cells

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • The endoplasmic reticulum or ER, consists of stacks of flattened sacs of membrane

  • The best way to determine if the structure is the ER or Golgi apparatus is if it is connected to the nucleus.

    • ER is connected


Endoplasmic reticulum1

Cells

Endoplasmic Reticulum


Endoplasmic reticulum2

Smooth ER

Cells

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Rough ER

When ribosomes are present, the ER is called the rough ER and provides

Aids in protein synthesis

Smooth ER, without ribosomes, is responsible for the synthesis of lipids and hormones.


Golgi apparatus

Cells

Golgi Apparatus

  • The Golgi apparatus

    • The Golgi modifies and package proteins and lipids into vesicles

    • The Golgi also produces lysosomes

    • Think of it as Fed Ex


Mitochondria

Mitochondria

  • Mitochondria carry out aerobic respiration, a process in which energy (in the form of ATP) is obtained from organic molecules (glucose)

    • It’s the powerhouse of the cell

  • Mitochondria are found in both plant and animal cells

  • Since it converts food to usable energy (ATP), what type of cell would have a lot of mitochondria??


Mitochondria1

Mitochondria


Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts

  • Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in algae and plants that carry out photosynthesis, the process of capturing energy from sunlight and converting it into useable energy (carbohydrates)


Chloroplasts1

Cells

Chloroplasts


Chloroplasts2

Chloroplasts

  • Chloroplasts contain chlorophylls, which are responsible for the green color of a plant and are the key light-trapping molecules in photosynthesis

  • Chloroplast are not found in animal cells. Why not??


Chloroplasts and mitochondria

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

  • Add this to your notes!!!!

  • Both chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own circular DNA and ribosomes, just like bacteria

  • They also reproduce the same way as bacteria

  • This suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria may have once been bacteria


Vacuoles vesicles

Vacuoles & Vesicles

  • Vacuoles/ Vesicles are fluid-filled membrane bound bodies

    • They may contain food particles or digestive enzymes (found in lysosomes)

    • Transport substances throughout the cell

    • Release of cellular waste products


Vacuoles vesicles1

Cells

Vacuoles & Vesicles

  • -Central vacuoles are large bodies that store water and occupies most of the interior of plant cells

    • -If the central vacuole runs low on water, the plant will begin to wilt

  • -The central vacuole in plants stores starch, pigments, and toxic substances


Lysosomes

Lysosomes

  • Lysosomes are vesicles from the Golgi apparatus that contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes

    • They are the cell’s stomach

  • Lysosomes play an important role in:

    • Intracellular digestion such as breaking down food, cellular debris, and foreign invaders such as bacteria


Lysosomes1

Cells

Lysosomes


Cytoskeleton

Cells

Cytoskeleton

  • The cytoskeleton is the internal structure of the cytoplasm and is involved in establishing the shape of the cell and coordinating movements


Cytoskeleton1

Cells

Cytoskeleton


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 3

Structures and Organelles

Cilia

  • Short, numerous projections that look like hairs

Flagella

  • Longer and less numerous than cilia

  • Create movement with a whiplike motion


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 3

Table 7.1 Summary of Cell Structure

Table 7.2 Summary of Cell Structure

Table 7.3 Summary of Cell Structure


Prokaryotic cell

Cellular Structure and Function

Section 3

Structures and Organelles

Plant and Animal Cell Structures


Structures only found in plant cells

cells:

Cell Wall

Chloroplasts

Central Vacuole

Structures only found in Plant Cells


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