Prokaryotic cell structure and function
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LECTURE 2:. Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function. Microbiology and Virology; 3 Credit hours Atta- ur - Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST). Bacterial Cell Wall.

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Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function

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Prokaryotic cell structure and function

LECTURE 2:

Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function

Microbiology and Virology; 3 Credit hours

Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB)

National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)


Bacterial cell wall

Bacterial Cell Wall

  • The cell wall is the layer, usually fairly rigid, that lies just outside the plasma membrane.

  • After Christian Gram developed the Gram stain in 1884, it soon became evident that most bacteria could be divided into two major groups based on their response to the Gram-stain procedure

    • Gram Positive Bacteria

    • Gram Negative Bacteria


Bacterial cell wall1

Bacterial Cell Wall

  • All the structures from the plasma membrane outward, the Cell envelope

  • This includes the plasma membrane, cell wall and structures like capsules if present.

  • Space between the plasma membrane and the outer membrane; Peri-plasmic space.


Peptidoglycan structure

Peptidoglycan Structure

  • Peptidoglycan (aka murein) is a mesh-like polymer composed of many identical subunits.

  • The polymer contains two sugar derivatives,

    • N-acetyl-glucosamine

    • N-acetyl-muramicacid

  • Several different amino acids


Peptidoglycan structure1

Peptidoglycan Structure


Prokaryotic cell structure and function

Peptidoglycan Structure


Prokaryotic cell structure and function

Peptidoglycan Structure

In order to make a strong, mesh-like polymer, chains of linked peptidoglycan subunits must be joined by cross-links between the peptides. Often the carboxyl group of the terminal D-alanine is connected directly to the amino group of di-aminopimelicacid,

but a peptide interbridge may be used instead. Most gram-negative cell wall peptidoglycan lacks the peptide interbridge. This cross-linking results in an enormous peptidogly- can sac that is actually one dense, interconnected network .


Peptidoglycan structure teichoic acids

Peptidoglycan Structure, Teichoic Acids

  • Gram positive cell walls usually contain large amounts of teichoic acids, polymers of glycerol or ribitol joined by phosphate groups

  • The teichoic acids are covalently connected to either the peptidoglycan itself or to plasma membrane lipids; in the latter case they are called lipo-teichoicacids.

  • They are negatively charged, help give the gram-positive cell wall its negative charge.

  • They are important in maintaining the structure of the wall.

  • Teichoicacids are not present in gram negative bacteria.


Teichoic acid structure

Teichoic Acid Structure

The segment of a teichoicacid made of phosphate, glycerol, and a side chain, R. R may represent D-alanine, glucose, or other molecules.


Peri plasmic space of gram positive bacteria

Peri-plasmicSpace of Gram-Positive Bacteria

  • The substance that occupies the periplasmic space is the periplasm.

  • The periplasm has relatively few proteins; this is probably because the peptidoglycan sac is porous and any proteins secreted by the cell usually pass through it.

  • Enzymes secreted by gram-positive bacteria are called exoenzymes.

  • Serve to degrade polymeric nutrients


Gram negative cell walls

Gram-Negative Cell Walls

  • Gram-negative cell walls are much more complex than gram-positive walls.

  • The periplasmic space of gram-negative bacteria is also strikingly different

  • It ranges in size from 1 nm to as great as 71 nm

  • It may constitute about 20 to 40% of the total cell volume

  • Nutrient acquisition—for example, hydrolytic enzymes


Gram negative cell walls1

Gram-Negative Cell Walls

  • Some periplasmic proteins are involved in energy conservation

  • The denitrifying bacteria, which convert nitrate to nitrogen gas, and bacteria that use inorganic molecules as energy sources (chemolithotrophs) have electron transport proteins in their periplasm.

  • Other periplasmicproteins are involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and the modification of toxic compounds that could harm the cell.


Lipopolysaccharides lpss

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)

  • Outer to the peptidoglycan layer is lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)

  • LPS contain both lipid and carbohydrate, and consist of three parts:

    • lipid A

    • the core polysaccharide

    • the O side chain


Prokaryotic cell structure and function

  • The lipid A region contains two glucosamine sugar derivatives, each with three fatty acids and phosphate or pyrophosphate attached.

  • The fatty acids attach the lipid A to the outer membrane, while the remainder of the LPS molecule projects from the surface.

  • The core polysaccharide is joined to lipid A.


Lipopolysaccharides lpss1

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)

  • Peptidoglycan layer and LPS are joined in two ways

  • The first is by Braun’s lipoprotein, the most abundant protein in the outer membrane.

  • This small lipoprotein is covalently joined to the underlying peptidoglycan, and is embedded in the outer membrane by its hydrophobic end.

  • The second linking mechanism involves the many adhesion sites joining the outer membrane and the plasma membrane.


Functions of lipopolysaccharides lps

Functions of Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

  • The core polysaccharide usually contains charged sugars and phosphate, LPS contributes to the negative charge on the bacterial surface.

  • Bacterial attachment to surfaces and biofilm formation.

  • It aids in creating a permeability barrier to restrict the entry of bile salts, antibiotics, and other toxic substances that might kill or injure the bacterium.

  • The O side chain of LPS is also called the O antigen because it elicits an immune response.

  • G negative bacteria are able to rapidly change the antigenic nature of their O side chains, thus escaping host defenses.


A comparison b w g ve g ve

A comparison b/w G(+ve) & G(-ve)


Prokaryotic cell structure and function

GRAM POSITIVE

Lipoteichoic acid

Peptidoglycan-teichoic acid

Cytoplasmic membrane

Cytoplasm

GRAM NEGATIVE

Lipopolysaccharide

Porin

Outer Membrane

Braun lipoprotein

Periplasmic space

Inner (cytoplasmic) membrane

Cytoplasm


Gram staining

Gram Staining


What happens in gram staining

What happens in Gram staining?

  • Crystal Violet (purple)

    • Primary stain; positive stain.

    • Stains all cell walls purple.

  • Iodine

    • Mordant (Any substance used to facilitate the fixing of a dye to a fibre).

    • Combines with CV to form an insoluble complex that gets trapped in thicker peptidoglycan layers.

  • Ethanol

    • Decolorizer.

    • CV complex washed out of Gram negative organisms because it cannot be trapped by outer layer.

  • Safranin (pink)

    • Counterstain.

    • Stains all cells, but only the negative ones actually appear pink.


Prokaryotic cell structure and function

G -ve

G +ve


Archaeal cell walls

ARCHAEAL CELL WALLS

  • Archaeal wall structure and chemistry differ from those of the Bacteria.

  • Archaeal cell walls lack peptidoglycan and also exhibit considerable variety in terms of their chemical make-up.

Methanobacteriumformicicum, and

(b)Thermoproteustenax. CW, cell wall; SL, surface layer; CM, cell membrane or plasma membrane; CPL, cytoplasm.


Gram positive type archae

Gram Positive Type Archae

  • Their wall chemistry varies from species to species but usually consists of complex heteropolysaccharides.

  • Methanobacterium and some other methane-generating archaea (methanogens) have walls containing pseudomurein

  • A peptidoglycan like polymer that has L-amino acids instead of D-amino acids in its cross-links

  • N-acetyltal-osaminuronicacid instead of N-acetylmuramic acid,

  • β(1→3) glycosidic bonds instead of β(1→4) glycosidic bonds.


The structure of pseudomurein

The Structure of Pseudomurein

Archaeaβ(1→3) Glycosidic Bond

Bacteria β(1→4) Glycosidic Bond


Gram negative type archae

Gram Negative Type Archae

  • Many archaea that stain gram negative have a layer of glyco-protein or protein outside their plasma membrane

  • Some methanogens (Methanolobus), salt-loving archaea (Halobacterium), and extreme thermophiles (Sulfolobus, Thermoproteus, and Pyrodictium) have glycoproteins in their walls.

  • The layer may be as thick as 20 to 40 nm.

  • In contrast, other methanogens (Methanococcus, Methanomicrobium, and Methanogenium) and the extreme thermophile Desulfurococcus have protein walls.


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