LECTURE 2:. Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function. Microbiology and Virology; 3 Credit hours Atta- ur - Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST). Bacterial Cell Wall.
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In order to make a strong, mesh-like polymer, chains of linked peptidoglycan subunits must be joined by cross-links between the peptides. Often the carboxyl group of the terminal D-alanine is connected directly to the amino group of di-aminopimelicacid,
but a peptide interbridge may be used instead. Most gram-negative cell wall peptidoglycan lacks the peptide interbridge. This cross-linking results in an enormous peptidogly- can sac that is actually one dense, interconnected network .
The segment of a teichoicacid made of phosphate, glycerol, and a side chain, R. R may represent D-alanine, glucose, or other molecules.
The lipid A region contains two glucosamine sugar derivatives, each with three fatty acids and phosphate or pyrophosphate attached.
Inner (cytoplasmic) membrane
(b)Thermoproteustenax. CW, cell wall; SL, surface layer; CM, cell membrane or plasma membrane; CPL, cytoplasm.
Archaeaβ(1→3) Glycosidic Bond
Bacteria β(1→4) Glycosidic Bond