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Difference in Male Door-Opening Behavior in Relation to Age of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary. Amy Bender, Ashlee Kirk, & Sarah Scott Hanover College Fall 2005. Introduction. America moving towards gender equality, but gender roles still observable

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Difference in Male Door-Opening Behavior in Relation to Age of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

Amy Bender, Ashlee Kirk, & Sarah Scott

Hanover College

Fall 2005


Introduction
Introduction of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • America moving towards gender equality, but gender roles still observable

  • Generational differences in door-holding

    • Fengler & Wood, 1972; Twenge, 1997

  • Social movement’s effects on door-holding

    • Women’s movement (Twenge, 1997)

    • Benevolent sexism (Yoder, Hogue, Newman, Mertz, & LaVigne, 2002)


Hypothesis
Hypothesis of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • Age of Benefactor

    • Older men more likely to open the door for women than younger men

  • Sex of Beneficiary

    • Men more likely to open the door for women than other men


Methods
Methods of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • Observed 28 subjects in natural setting

  • Inter-rater reliability: 0.5

    • Judgements between both observers never differed by more than 5 years

  • Madison, IN and HC Campus Center in early evening

  • Definition of “door-opening”

  • Recorded men who had potential to open door

  • Recorded sex of beneficiary & age of benefactor


Results
Results of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • Found men who opened the door were significantly younger (M=20.75) than men who did not open the door (M=34.63). According to a t-test adjusted for inequality of variances, this relationship was significant, t(25.72)=3.14, p=.004.

Age of Benefactor

Door Holding Behavior


Results cont d
Results, cont’d. of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • 4 of the 28 cases were dropped for analysis

  • Men rarely opened doors but when they did, they opened them more for women

  • Although more females had the door opened for them (M=0.2) than males (M=0.0), these results were not significant according to Fisher’s exact test, p=1.0.


Discussion
Discussion of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • Age of Benefactor

    • Lack of older subjects

      • Location of observation

    • Non-existence of generation gap

      • E. Thomas, 1974


Discussion1
Discussion of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • Sex of Beneficiary

    • Benevolent Sexism

      • J.D. Yoder, M. Hogue, R. Newman, L. Mertz, and T. Lavigne, 2002

      • Limitations of location

    • Economic Class Differences

      • M.D. Smith and L.J. Fisher, 1982


Further research
Further Research of Male Benefactor and Sex of Beneficiary

  • Limit observation to beneficiary directly

  • Examine a different definition of door holding


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