diseases of the urinary and reproductive system
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Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive System. Warning: Some images may be disturbing. Urinary System. Female Reproductive Organs. Male Reproductive System. Normal Flora of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems. Normal urine is STERILE – external skin contamination possible

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diseases of the urinary and reproductive system

Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive System

Warning: Some images may be disturbing

normal flora of the urinary and reproductive systems
Normal Flora of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems
  • Normal urine is STERILE – external skin contamination possible
  • Most common bacterial in the vagina is lactobacillus
  • Acid production keeps pH low and prevents other bacteria from growing
  • Candida albicans normal flora of the vagina
  • Male urethra is usually sterile
diseases of the urinary system
Diseases of the Urinary System
  • Urethritis – inflammation of the urethra
  • Cystitis – bladder infection
  • Ureteritis – infection of the ureters
  • Pyelonephritis – kidney infection
cystitis
Cystitis
  • Inflammation of bladder
  • Symptoms are often difficult, painful, urgent urination
  • Female urethra is only 2 inches long and close to anal opening – E. coli is most common infective agent
  • Rate of bladder infection is 8 times higher in women than men
  • 100 CFU’s or more in urine sample is over the limit
  • Treatment – trimethoprin-sulfamethoxazole
pyelonephritis
Pyelonephritis
  • Untreated cystitis can lead to inflammation of the kidneys
  • Fever and back pain
  • Causative agent is usually E. coli
  • Potentially life threatening condition
  • IV antibiotics
bacterial diseases of the reproductive system
Bacterial Diseases of the Reproductive System
  • New terminology STD or STI?
  • STI – Sexually transmitted infections is now the preferred terminology
  • More than 30 bacterial, viral or parasitic infections that are identified as STI’s
  • In US 15,000,000 new cases of STI’s per year
gonorrhea
Gonorrhea
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram – diplococcus
  • 700,000 cases reported each year in the US
  • 60% of the patients are ages 15-24
  • It’s easy to get
    • Men – single unprotected exposure results in infection 20-35% of the time
    • Women – single unprotected exposure results in infection 60-90% of the time
gonorrhea in men
Gonorrhea in men
  • Painful urination
  • Pus containing discharge from the penis
  • Symptoms appear in a few days
  • Treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics
  • REMEMBER it’s now a superbug!
gonorrhea in women
Gonorrhea in women
  • Difficult to diagnose
  • Only the cervix is infected
  • Few women know that they are infected
  • Abdominal pain from complications of PID may be present
chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Common cause of PID in women
  • Five times as many cases in women than men
  • Most are unaware of the infection because symptoms are mild in men and asymptomatic in women
  • Complications of Chlamydia associated PID in women can be:
    • Infection of cervix
    • Uterine tubes – SALPINGITIS and tubal pregnancy
    • Ovaries and uterus
syphilis
Syphilis

Treponema pallidum

Gram negative spirochete

Produces inflammatory immune response to damage host tissue

Treponema probably evolved from a tropical skin disease called yaws and was imported into the new world by European explorers

Three stages to the disease

primary stage syphilis
Primary Stage Syphilis
  • Initial sign is a small sore called a CHANCRE
  • Usually painless but exudes a very infective fluid
  • Women may not know they are infected because the cervix is the site of the chancre
  • Sore disappears in a few weeks
  • Bacteria enter the bloodstream and lymphatic system
secondary stage syphilis
Secondary stage syphilis
  • Several weeks after the primary stages skin rashes appear that are characteristic of secondary syphilis
  • Palms and soles of feet
  • Lesions from the rash are very infective
  • Difficult to diagnose at this stage
  • Symptoms usually resolve in 3 months
latent period
Latent period
  • After secondary stage the disease enters the latent phase
  • No symptoms present
  • After 2-4 years the disease is no longer infectious
  • Most cases treated or not do not progress past this stage
tertiary stage syphilis
Tertiary stage syphilis
  • Up to 25% of untreated case enter this phase
  • Skin lesions called gummas are this in this stage
  • Neurologic symptoms may also appear
  • This stage is very rare today
treatment
Treatment
  • Penicillin is still used with good results for primary and secondary stage disease
genital herpes
Genital Herpes
  • Caused by HSV-2
  • HSV-1 causes cold sores can can cause genital herpes
  • IN THE UNITED STATES ONE IN FOUR PERSON OVER THE AGES OF 30 IS INFECTED WITH HSV-2!!!!!!!
  • Most are unaware they are infected
  • Remember Herpes is forever
  • No cure only management of the condition
genital warts
Genital warts
  • Caused by papillomaviruses
  • Million new cases in the US each year
  • Common infection 25% of women ages 14-59 may be infected
  • Papillomavirus types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer, types 6 and 11 genital warts
  • HPV vaccine – Gardasil
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