Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 87

Getting a Grip on 5000 Taxa and 500,000 Specimens: Lessons from a PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 85 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

1. Getting a Grip on 5000 Taxa and 500,000 Specimens: Lessons from a Planetary Biodiversity Inventory Project presented by Randall T. Schuh Curator and Chair Division of Invertebrate Zoology American Museum of Natural History, New York. 2. Heteroptera: True Bugs. 7 infraorders

Download Presentation

Getting a Grip on 5000 Taxa and 500,000 Specimens: Lessons from a

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

1

Getting a Grip on 5000 Taxa and

500,000 Specimens:

Lessons from a

Planetary Biodiversity Inventory

Project

presented by

Randall T. Schuh

Curator and Chair

Division of Invertebrate Zoology

American Museum of Natural History, New York


Heteroptera true bugs

2

Heteroptera: True Bugs

  • 7 infraorders

  • 85 families

  • 40,000 described species


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

3


Miridae plant bugs

4

Miridae: Plant Bugs

  • Infraorder:

  • Cimicomorpha

  • 1,350 valid genera

  • 10,200 valid species

  • mostly phytophagous

  • high host specificity

  • many myrmecomorphic

  • some aposematic


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Systema Naturae, 1758

5

Linnaeus,C.

World fauna

17 Miridae spp.

No figures


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Biologia Centrali Americana, 1883, 1884

6

Distant, W. L.

Central American fauna

200 Miridae spp.

5500 specimens of

Heteroptera

Hand-colored figures


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Fauna of British India, 1904, 1910

7

Distant, W. L.

Tropical Asian fauna

86 Miridae spp.

~ 300 specimens

B&W line drawings


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

South African Animal Life, 1960

8

Carvalho, J. C. M.

South African fauna

42 Miridae species

< 500 specimens studied

B&W figures


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Species Accumulation

9

Palearctic

Nearctic

Neotropical

Ethiopian

Oriental

Australian


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Australian Miridae, 1994

10

1

  • 180 described species

  • 1.8% of known world fauna

  • ~ 500 species in collections

  • 25,000 specimens in collections

  • 35 published host records


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Gerry Cassis

11

1

north of

Kalbarri National Park,

Western Australia

October, 1996


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Australia: 1995--2002 Localities

12

1

>400 localities


Australian miridae 2002

13

1

Australian Miridae: 2002

  • 210 described species: + 15%

  • > 1,500 spp. in collections: + 300%

  • > 100,000 specimens: + 400%

  • 1,400 recorded hosts: + 4000%


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Planetary Biodiversity Inventories

14

1

Funding: US National Science Foundation, 2003

Criteria: Worldwide and monophyletic taxa

Duration: 5 years

Projects: Eumycetozoa (slime molds): 1000 species

Solanum (Solanaceae): 1500 species

Miridae (Heteroptera): 5000 species

Siluriformes (cat fishes): 2500 species

http://research.amnh.org/pbi


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

15

1


Target taxa orthotylinae and phylinae

16

1

Target Taxa: Orthotylinae and Phylinae

  • Status as of 2003

    • 8 recognized tribes

    • 485 described genera

    • 3900 described species

    • ~ 90 new genera

    • ~ 1200 new species in collections


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Exemplar Orthotylinae and Phylinae

17

1


Pbi goals

18

1

PBI Goals

  • ~ 1000 new species to be described

  • improved classification

  • 5,000 target spp. in Systematic Catalog

  • 27,000 pages in Digital Library

  • ~ 500,000 specimens in Specimen Database

  • 3500 vouchered host plants

  • ~ 20,000 habitus, morphology, host, and habitat images


Overview of pbi approaches

19

1

Overview of PBI Approaches

  • Internet dissemination of information

  • Systematic Catalog

  • Specimen Databasing

  • Georeferencing

  • Unique Specimen Identification

  • Species Pages

  • Processing of Existing Collections

  • Digital Imaging

  • Field Work/Specimen Processing

  • Host Documentation


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Transmitting Systematic Information over the Internet

20

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

21

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

22

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

23

1


Systematic catalog on line relational database

24

1

Systematic Catalog:On-line Relational Database

Features

  • Up-to-date nomenclature and classification

  • Annotations on relevant literature

  • Host and geographic information from literature

  • Portal to other databases/features

    • Specimen Database

    • Species mapping

    • Host data from specimens

    • Digital Library

    • Image Database

    • Species pages

    • Web-based aids to identification


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

25

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

26

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

27

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

28

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

29

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Specimen Database

30

1

  • Functions of PBI Specimen Database

    • Capture specimen data

    • Incorporate unique specimen identification

    • Serve data over the Internet

  • Possible Approaches

    • Off the shelf vs. newly developed application

    • Browser-based vs. program-based access

    • Open source vs. proprietary software

    • Stand-alone vs. network-based usage


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

PBI Specimen Database Approach

31

1

  • Tailored to invertebrate collections

  • Browser based

  • Open source software

  • Data entry over Internet to central server

  • Efficient data entry

  • Batch loading of unique specimen identifiers

  • Multiple modes

    • Museum Mode

    • Field Mode

    • Identification Mode

    • Edit Mode


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

32

1


Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

Georeferencing

33

1

  • GEOLocate

    • Stand alone program

    • Easy to use

    • Individual & batch processing

    • Manual correction capability

    • Limitations

    • – parsing of locality names

  • – still under development

  • http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/default.aspx


  • Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    34

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    35

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Unique Specimen Identification

    36

    1

    • Justification

      • Facilitate specimen tracking

    • Necessary Attributes

      • Machine readability

        • - Bar codes

        • - Matrix codes

      • Human readability

      • Small size of code-bearing labels

      • Ease of integration into

      • existing collection practices


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    37

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    38

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Species Pages

    39

    1

    • Original concept

      • Nomenclatural history

      • Descriptions/diagnoses

      • Figures

      • Distributional summary

      • Biological data

    • New capabilities via Internet

      • Dynamic updates

      • Dynamic mapping

      • Improved access

      • Links to additional resources


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Fauna Insectorum Germanicae, 1805

    40

    1

    Panzer, G.W.F.

    9 Miridae spp.

    Hand-colored figures


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    41

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Processing of Existing Collections

    42

    1

    • Select specimens that:

      • Increase taxon numbers

      • Extend geographic coverage

      • Extend host coverage

    • Groups of taxonomists sort specimens to:

      • Minimize handling

      • Speed processing

    • Sort according to following hierarchy:

      • Taxon

      • Geography

      • Sex


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Difficulties and Solutions

    43

    1

    • Difficulties encountered

      • Historical organization of collections

      • Pinned directly into boxes/drawers

      • No sorting to family-rank taxa and below

      • Lack of web-based inventories

    • Solutions proposed

      • Systematic organization of collections

      • Movement to drawer and unit system

      • Sort to family-rank taxa and below

      • Use of unique specimen identification

      • Creation of web-based inventories


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    44

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Principal PBI Collection Resources

    45

    1

    Acquisition of Collections: Specific


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Digital Imaging of Specimens

    46

    1

    Microptics-USA

    • Unique lighting

    • High depth of field

    • Real-time focusing

    • Rapid image acquistion

    • High resolution


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    47

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Field Work Fundamentals

    48

    1

    • Application of taxon focused techniques

    • Maximize discovery of new taxa

    • Extend geographic coverage

    • Maximize biological information

    • Maximize specimen quality

    • Maximize specimen numbers


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Collecting Equipment

    49

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Collecting Video

    50

    1

    (A video of collecting was shown at this stage in the slideshow.)


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Processing Field Collections

    51

    1

    • Centralized mounting and labeling

    • Label copy derived directly from locality database

    • Centralized rough sorting after host labeling

    • Unique specimen identifiers added as part of rough sorting process


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Locality and Host Labels

    52

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Host Specificity in the Miridae

    53

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Host Documentation and Vouchering

    54

    1

    • Vouchers collected, pressed, and associated with insect associates

    • Vouchers photo-documented

      • In field (digital SLR camera)

      • As herbarium specimens (scanning)

  • Vouchers identified by specialists

  • Vouchers deposited in recognized herbaria

  • Voucher data part of insect labeling


  • Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Processing host vouchers, Sept. 2004,

    Compton Herbarium,

    Cape Town

    55

    1

    Vouchers ready for drying


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    SOUTH AFRICAN FIELD WORK

    56

    1

    Western Cape as a PBI target area:

    Namaqualand–Little Karoo–Fynbos

    • Extreme plant diversity and endemism

    • Unique biotic affinities

    • Limited prior sampling

    • Few publications and described taxa

    • Unstudied by classical & modern authors

    • No local specialists


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    South African Orthotylinae and Phylinae: 1961, 1974

    57

    1

    1961: 12 described species0 documented hosts 250 specimens studied

    1974: 100 described species: + 850%

    50 documented hosts 2000 specimens studied: + 800%


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    South Africa: 2003, 2004 Localities

    58

    1

    >120 localities


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    South African Orthotylinae and Phylinae, 2005

    59

    1

    • > 250 species: + 250%

    • > 350 documented hosts: + 700%

    • > 20,000 specimens: + 1000%


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Looking west from Vanrhyns Pass Summit

    60

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Northern Namaqualand, SE of Kamieskroon

    61

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Collecting near Kamieskroon, northern Namaqualand

    62

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Cupressaceae: Widdringtonia sp.Widdringtoniola sp.

    63

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Solanaceae: Lycium sp.Karoocapsus sp.

    64

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Geraniaceae: Pelargonium cucullatumundescribed

    65

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Aizoaceae: Lampranthus sp.Eminoculus sp.

    66

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Fabaceae: Lebeckia sericeaPseudosthenarus sp.

    67

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Asteraceae: Leysera sp. undescribed

    68

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    AUSTRALIAN FIELD WORK

    69

    1

    Australia as a PBI target area

    • High plant diversity and endemicity, especially in west and southwest

    • Limited sampling

    • Few publications and described taxa

    • No local specialists historically


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Open Acacia woodland, South Australia

    70

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Sand dune, north of Kalbarri Park, Western Australia

    71

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Heath lands, near Esperance, Western Australia

    72

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Xanthorrhoeaceae: Lomandra sp.Kirkaldyella sp.

    73

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Restionaceae: Hypolaena humilisundescribed

    74

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Loranthaceae: Amyema sp.Hypseloecus sp.

    75

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Proteaceae: Conospermum sp.undescribed

    76

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Proteaceae: Grevillea sp.3 undescribed

    77

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Proteaceae: Adenanthos cuneatusundescribed

    78

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Myrtaceae: Melaleuca sp.undescribed

    79

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Chenopodiaceae: Rhagodia sp.undescribed

    80

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Casuarinaceae: Casuarina sp. Austromirini sp.

    81

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Fabaceae: Acacia sp.Austromiris sp.

    82

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Asteraceae: Waitzia acuminata“Wallabicoris” sp.

    83

    1


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    PBI Accomplishments

    84

    1

    • 20% increase in available specimens

    • 20% increase in known species diversity

    • Continental-scale increase in geographic coverage

    • > 500% increase in host-documented specimens

    • > 1000% increase in host vouchers


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    PBI vs. Faunistics

    85

    1

    • World vs. local collection resources

    • World vs. regional perspective

    • Broad-scale vs. narrow taxonomic conclusions

    • All-inclusive phylogenetic theories

    • Broad-scale vs. narrow biogeographic conclusions

    • Broad-scale vs. regional taxonomic tools

    • One-stop biodiversity information shopping


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Issues Clarified

    86

    1

    • Need for study of basic insect taxonomy

    • Need to improve biodiversity knowledge on a global scale

    • Need to improve knowledge of insect biology


    Getting a grip on 5000 taxa and 500 000 specimens lessons from a

    Acknowledgments

    87

    • Gerry Cassis

    • Sheridan Hewson-Smith

    • Jason Larimer

    • Brenda Massie

    • Ella Massie-Schuh

    • Lorenzo Prendini

    • Michael Schwartz

    • F. Christian Thompson

    • Steve Thurston

    • Christiane Weirauch

    • Denise Wyniger

    • National Science Foundation

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Australian Museum

    • http://research.amnh.org/pbi


  • Login