5. Collecting, Processing, and Testing Blood Specimens. Introduction. Medical assistant Collects blood specimens Performs waived testing Knowledge needed Understand circulatory system and function of blood Appropriate supplies and equipment How to perform and screen common blood tests.
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Collecting, Processing, and Testing Blood Specimens
Red blood cells – erythrocytes
Transport oxygen to cells
Hemoglobin – 98%
Dissolved in plasma – 2 to 3 %
Main component of RBCs
Protein containing iron
White blood cells – leukocytes
Protect against infection
T and B lymphocytes
Platelets – thrombocytes
Fragments of cytoplasm
Essential for clot formation
Clear, yellow liquid
Contains formed elements of blood
Serum – clear, yellow liquid remaining after clot formation
ANSWER: The medical assistant will put the patient at ease during the procedure, process specimens, conduct testing, complete necessary paperwork, and make sure specimens are handled properly.
What are three functions of blood?
ANSWER: Functions of the blood are: (list any 3)
Distributes oxygen, nutrients, and hormones
Eliminates waste products
Attacks infecting pathogens
Maintains acid-base balance
Regulates body temperature
Reading and interpreting the test order
Assemble equipment and supplies
Preparing the patient
Greet and identify the patient
Confirm pretest preparation
Explain the procedure and safety precautions
Establish chain of custody
Common Sites for Venipuncture
Hold needle still
Hold pressure on siteafter removal of needle
Use non-latex gloves,tourniquet, and bandages
Clean site prior to venipuncture
May not be evident for several days
Engineered safety devices
Reduce the possibility of needlestick injuries
Hinged or sliding shields
Superficial puncture of skin with sharp point
Lancets– small, disposable instruments
Automatic puncturing devices
Micropipettes – small, calibrated glass tubes that hold a precise volume of fluid
Reagent products –chemically treated paper or dipstick
What precautions should you take when collecting a blood specimen?
ANSWER: You should use Standard Precautions and appropriate personal protective equipment.
Difficult venipuncture – do not stick more than twice
Fainting patients –
Reaction to blood draw
Position to avoid injury
What is one precaution you can take when drawing blood from a patient who is taking anticoagulants?
ANSWER: After drawing blood on a patient taking anticoagulants, you should hold a cotton ball over the puncture site for at least 5 minutes, monitor the site carefully, and notify the physician if bleeding does not stop.
Centrifuged Capillary Sample
Introduction of an antigen or antibody into a specimen and detection of a reaction to it
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test
Rapid screening tests
___ Hemoglobin A1c A.ESR
___ Lysing RBCs/evaluating the colorB.Serology test
___ Shape or form of objectsC.Coagulation tests
___ Identify bleeding problemsD.Chemical test
___ Rate at which RBCs fallE.Differential
___ Percentage of each type of WBC F.Morphology