watershed based planning
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Watershed-Based Planning

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

Watershed-Based Planning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Watershed-Based Planning. A Blueprint for Action!. Statutory and regulatory context. Clean Water Act Water quality standards KPDES discharge permits Stream & wetland “filling” Safe Drinking Water Act Source water protection Public health codes Residential wastewater Local Codes

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Watershed-Based Planning' - oneida

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
watershed based planning

Watershed-Based Planning

A Blueprint for Action!

statutory and regulatory context
Statutory and regulatory context
  • Clean Water Act
    • Water quality standards
    • KPDES discharge permits
    • Stream & wetland “filling”
  • Safe Drinking Water Act
    • Source water protection
  • Public health codes
    • Residential wastewater
  • Local Codes
    • Planning/zoning, subdivision, etc.
clean water act part i technology based
Clean Water Act Part I:Technology Based
  • Focus on point source (PS) discharges to surface waters, through NPDES permitting
  • Limits apply regardless of condition of receiving water, or relative contribution from the source
  • Pollutant levels in discharges determined by technical/economic feasibility
  • Same limits placed on all PS within each industrial grouping (50 categories/plus subcategories)
    • Generally, municipal sewage plants must achieve discharge equal to “secondary treatment”
cost effectiveness analysis
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

COST ($)


Treatment Level



kpdes permitting under sec 402
KPDES Permitting under Sec. 402
  • Illegal for point source (pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, vessel, rolling stock, or other manmade conveyance) to discharge pollutants to surface waters without a permit
  • Permit is a license granting permission to discharge
    • Not a right: permit is revocable “for cause” (eg, non-compliance)
    • No guarantee against more stringent future requirements
kpdes program coverage
KPDES Program: Coverage
  • Industrial and municipal wastewater
  • Industrial, urban, and construction-related storm water runoff
  • Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
  • Active, inactive, and some abandoned mines
  • Discharges from RCRA remedial action activity meeting point source definition
kpdes stormwater covers
KPDES stormwater covers:
  • Construction sites with a disturbed area of one acre or more
    • General permit, BMP plan, inspections required
  • Some cities with municipally-owned separate storm sewer systems
    • 10,000 population or more
    • Must develop program with public education & involvement, construction site controls, post-construction stormwater management, pollution prevention, illicit discharge detection and elimination.

Direct and Indirect Discharges






kpdes permits
KPDES Permits
  • Individual permits
    • All point sources not covered by general permits must obtain (no de minimis exemption)
    • Required to submit detailed permit application form, including data on actual/expected levels of pollutants in discharge
  • General permits (many sources)
    • Usually similar sources
    • Usually same requirements for all
    • Minimal reporting
    • Notice of intent vs. passive coverage
kpdes permits elements
KPDES Permits: Elements
  • Effluent limits
    • Limits must ensure meeting WQS
    • Maximum daily and monthly average limits required for most
    • POTWs have weekly average instead of daily maximum
    • Expressed as mass–directly/indirectly
  • Best management practices
    • Production process modifications
    • Operational changes
    • Materials substitution
    • Materials and/or water conservation
  • Compliance schedule (shouldn’t extend beyond 5-year permit term
kpdes permits elements cont
KPDES Permits: Elements (cont.)
  • Monitoring requirements
    • Self-monitoring by permittee
    • Traditionally effluents only, increasingly ambient, too
    • Specifies parameters and tests
    • Specifies frequency
  • Reporting requirements
    • Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMRs) sent to the permitting agency
      • Often monthly but sometimes less frequently
  • Reopener provisions
  • For POTWs only: Pretreatment program and sludge management requirements
clean water act part ii water quality standards

Clean Water Act Part II:Water Quality Standards

  • What are you using it for?
  • What criteria support that use?
  • How will you keep it from degrading?
water quality standards
Water Quality Standards
  • State’s yardstick to measure health of waters
  • Three key elements of WQSs:
    • Designated uses
    • Water quality criteria
    • Antidegradation


kentucky use designations
Kentucky Use Designations
  • Aquatic life support – warmwater & coldwater aquatic habitat
  • Primary contact recreation – swimming
  • Secondary contact recreation – boating and fishing
  • Fish consumption – eating fish
  • Drinking water – domestic water supply
wqs water quality criteria wqc
WQS: Water Quality Criteria (WQC)
  • Consistent scientifically with protecting all designated uses (DUs)
  • Basic types of criteria
    • Narrative/numeric
    • Water column/sediment/

fish tissue

  • Categories of criteria
    • Aquatic life
      • Pollutant-specific/aquatic community indices
    • Human health (drinking/fish consumption)
    • Wildlife (semiaquatic/food chain effects)
wqs narrative criteria
WQS: Narrative Criteria
  • Waters must be "free from"
    • Putrescent or otherwise objectionable bottom deposits
    • Oil, scum, and floating debris in amounts that are unsightly
    • Nuisance levels of odor, color, or other conditions
    • Undesirable or nuisance aquatic life
    • Substances in amounts toxic to humans or aquatic life

Usually apply to all waters, regardless of use designation

wqs numeric criteria
WQS: Numeric Criteria
  • Parameter-specific: DO, temp., turbidity, N, P, Cu, dioxin, etc.
    • Level/concentration: 1 mg/L, 5 mg/kg
    • Duration:
      • Acute: instantaneous, 1-hour, 1-day
      • Chronic: 4-day, 7-day, 30-day
    • Recurrence interval: 1 year, 3 years





















Most Sensitive




acute toxicity data
Acute Toxicity Data

96-hour LC50


0.0 μg/L 25 μg/L 50 μg/L 100 μg/L 200 μg/L 500 μg/L

Control 1 2 3 4 5

96-hr LC50 = 100 μg/L

biological criteria
Biological criteria

Good Mid-Range Poor

wqs biological criteria
WQS: Biological Criteria
  • Applicable to aquatic life, not human health
  • Require field sampling and studies
  • Fish, macroinvertebrates, plants, etc.
    • Number of individuals, species, categories
    • Mass of species, feeding guilds, trophic levels
    • Specialists verses generalists
    • Tolerant verses intolerant
  • Compare conditions at “study site” with relatively unimpacted “reference site”
wqs antidegradation provisions
WQS: antidegradation provisions
  • Purpose: Prevent deterioration of existing levels of good water quality
  • Generally applies parameter-by-parameter, not waterbody-by-waterbody
  • Three tiers of protection
    • Tiers 1 and 2 apply to all waters with some features at or better than WQS
    • Tier 3 applies only to specially classified waters
tier 1 the absolute floor
Tier 1: the “absolute floor”
  • Cannot allow loss of any “existing” use
  • Cannot allow water quality to drop below levels needed to maintain existing use
  • Applies to all waters, regardless of use designation
tier 2 use of available assimilative capacity not a right
Tier 2: use of available assimilative capacity not a right
  • “Brakes” slide from really good WQ to barely at WQS by saying can’t degrade WQ unless:
    • Allowing lower WQ is “necessary to accommodate important economic or social development”
    • Point sources are meeting relevant technology-based limits
    • Have “achieved all cost-effective and reasonable best management practices for nonpoint sources”
    • Go through public review and comment process
tier 3 outstanding waters protected
Tier 3: outstanding waters protected
  • Applies only to waters classified as Outstanding National Resource Waters (ONRW)
    • This classification “overlays” designated uses
    • Candidates include, but are not limited to, “waters of National and State parks and wildlife refuges and waters of exceptional recreational or ecological significance”
  • Only minimal, or significant but short-term, decreases in WQ are allowed
303 d process establishing tmdls
303(d) process: establishing TMDLs

A TMDL is. . . .

  • A strategy for achieving WQS
  • Based on the relationship between pollutant sources and the condition of a water body
  • The amount of a specific pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still meet WQS
  • Describes an allowable load and allocates it among point sources and nonpoint sources (plus a margin of error).


tmdl process requirements
TMDL process requirements
  • Include public in the process!
  • Submit final TMDL, with loading allocations and supporting information, to USEPA
  • Review conducted by USEPA
    • If approved, begin implementation
    • If not approved, USEPA develops TMDL and finalizes within 30 days
  • Provide “reasonable assurance” load reductions can be achieved
leading causes sources of impairment 2004 305 b report
Leading causes & sources of impairment [2004 305(b) Report]
  • Causes
    • Siltation (sediment)
    • Pathogens (bacteria)
    • Other habitat alterations
    • PCBs
    • Organic enrichment / low DO
  • Sources
    • Unknown
    • Agriculture
    • Habitat modification
    • Resource extraction
    • Urban runoff / storm sewers