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Foodborne Illness Can Cause More than a Stomach Ache! MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year: 76 million people become ill 5,000 people die Signs and symptoms Fever Diarrhea Upset stomach Dehydration (sometimes severe) Vomiting

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MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines

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Foodborne Illness Can Cause

More than a Stomach Ache!

MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines


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Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year:

  • 76 million people become ill

  • 5,000 people die


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Signs and symptoms

Fever

Diarrhea

Upset stomach

Dehydration(sometimes severe)

Vomiting


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Don’t count on these to test for food safety!

Sight

Taste

Smell


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“Key recommendations”for food safety

The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give five“Key Recommendations” for food safety.

Source: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/recommendations.htm


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Recommendation 1:CLEAN

Cleanhands, food-contact surfaces, fruits and vegetables.

Do NOT wash or rinse meat and poultry as this could spread bacteria to other foods.


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Wash your hands!

Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness.


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How to wash hands

  • Wet hands with WARM water.

  • Soap and scrub for 20 seconds.

  • Rinse under clean, running water.

  • Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel.


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Clean during food preparation

Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.


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Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria

  • Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for bacterial growth.

  • Have a good supply of dishcloths to avoid reusing them before laundry day.

There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Spongesand dishcloths are worst offenders.~ research by Dr. Charles Gerba


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Recommendation 2: SEPARATE

Separateraw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.


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Use different cutting boards

Use one cutting boardfor fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat, poultry and seafood.


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Recommendation 3: COOK

Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.


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Chicken and turkey

Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts, legs and thighs, etc.) to165 degrees F.


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Pork, egg dishes, hamburger & ground meats

Cook pork, egg dishes, hamburger and ground meats to 160 degrees F.Cook ground poultry to 165 degrees F.


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Leftovers

Reheat leftovers until a temperature of165 degrees F is reached throughout the food.


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Beef, lamb & veal steaks

Cook beef, lamb and vealsteaksand roasts to160 degrees F for medium doneness (145 degrees F for medium rare).


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For more information about using food thermometers, visit this Web site …


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The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!


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DIGITAL instant-read

  • Reads in 10 seconds

  • Place at least ½ inch deep (or asdirected by manufacturer)

  • Gives fast reading

  • Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods

  • Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking

  • Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time

  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

  • Available in "kitchen" stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


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DIAL instant-read

  • Reads in 15-20 seconds

  • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food

  • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups

  • Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stem

  • Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways

  • Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking

  • Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking time

  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

  • Readily available in stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


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Dial oven-safe

  • Reads in 1-2 minutes

  • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food

  • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups

  • Not appropriate for thin foods

  • Can remain in food while it's cooking

  • Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high reading

  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


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Oven probe with cord

  • Can be used in most foods

  • Can also be used outside the oven

  • Designed to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered pot

  • Base unit sits on stovetop or counter

  • Cannot be calibrated

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


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Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use)

  • Reads in 5 -10 seconds

  • Place approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions)

  • Designed to be used only once

  • Designed for specific temperature ranges

  • Should only be used with food for which they are intended

  • Temperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reached

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


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Placing a food thermometer

  • Place in the thickest part of food.

  • Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle.

  • Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done."

  • For irregularly shaped food – such as with a beef roast – check the temperature in several places.

  • Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use!


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Using a thermometer in thinner foods

For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, a DIGITAL instant-read food thermometer should be used if possible– as it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer.

Disposable temperature indicators are another option.

For really thin foods, it maybe necessary to inserta digital thermometer or disposable temperatureindicator at an angle.


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Recommendation 4: CHILL

Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly.


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The TWO-hour rule

Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90 degrees F.

Perishable foods include:

  • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu

  • Dairy products

  • Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables

  • Fresh, peeled/cut fruits and vegetables


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DANGER ZONE

Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees F.


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A multiplication quiz

Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes!

How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIAleft at room temperature 7 hours?


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Answer: 2,097,152!

Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours.


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How to be cool – part 1

  • Cool food in shallow containers. Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less.

  • Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration.


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How to be cool – part 2

It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm.

Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled.


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…(can you guess?)

How long would it take an 8-inch stock pot of steaming chicken soup to cool to a safe temperature in your refrigerator?


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Would you believe … 24 hours!

TOSS IT OUT!

Remember: Transfer hot foods to shallow containers to speed cooling.


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Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures

  • Set refrigerator at 40 degrees F or below.

  • Set freezer at0 degrees F.


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Place an appliance thermometer in your refrigerator, freezer, and milk cooler!


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The THAW LAW

  • Plan ahead to defrost foods.

  • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.


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When to leave your leftovers

  • Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.

  • If in doubt, toss it out!


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Recommendation 5: AVOID...

  • Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products

  • Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs

  • Raw and undercooked meat and poultry

  • Unpasteurized juices

  • Raw sprouts

Most at risk are infants, young children,pregnant women, older adults and theimmunocompromised.


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Food safety recommendationsfor food groups

The 2005 MyPyramid gives specific food safety recommendations for each food group.


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Cleaning fruits & vegetables

  • Remove and discard outer leaves.

  • Rinse under clean, running water just before preparing or eating.

  • Rub briskly – scrubbing with a clean brush or hands – to remove dirt and surface microorganisms.

  • Don’t use soap or detergent.


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Wash this produce, too!

Bacteria on the outside of fruits can be transferred to the inside when the fruit is peeled or cut.

Wash fruits – such as cantaloupe and other melons – under running water.


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Handling fruits & vegetables

  • Cover and refrigerate cut/peeled fruits and vegetables.

  • TOSS cut/peeled fresh produce if left at room temperature longer than TWO hours.


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Separate fruits & vegetablesfrom other foods

Keep fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry and seafood while shopping, preparingor storing them.


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Read labels

Read labels on bagged produce to determine if it is ready-to-eat.

Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce can be used without further washing if kept refrigerated and used by the “use-by” date.


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Dairy do’s and don’ts

  • Refrigerate dairy foods promptly. Discard dairy foods left at room temperature for more than two hours – even if they look and smell good.


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Avoid washing raw meat & poultry

Do NOT wash raw meat and poultry. Washing is not necessary.

Washing increases the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils, and counter surfaces.


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Refrigerator storage

Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods.


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Cook to safe temperatures

Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs and raw/undercooked meat and poultry.

Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny.


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Signs of safely cooked fish

  • Fin fish: Slip point of sharp knife into flesh; pull aside. Edges should be opaque, the center slightly translucent with flakes beginning to separate. Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to finish cooking. 

  • Shrimp, lobsters & crab: Turn red and flesh becomes pearly opaque. 

  • Scallops: Turn milky white or opaque and firm. 

  • Clams, mussels & oysters: Watch for their shells opening to know they’re done. Toss those that stay closed.

    The US Food & Drug Administration recommends cooking most seafood to an internal temperature of 145 degrees F for 15 seconds.

Source: United States Food & Drug Administrationhttp://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/797_home.html


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Reauthorization Act of 2004

  • HACCP Plan for the district and each school

  • Implemented by July 1, 2005


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HACCP Stands for

Hazard

Analysis

and

Critical

Control

Point


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HACCP is

  • Preventive, not reactive

  • A management tool used to protect the food supply against biological, chemical and physical hazards


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HACCP Basic Flow Diagram Example

Food Delivered

Storing Food

Cooking Food

Storing Food in Warmer

Serving Food

Storage of Leftovers


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HACCP Basic Concepts

  • Sanitation

  • Temperature control/monitoring/recording

  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s)

  • Implemented & followed

http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/CNlabeling/Food-Safety/HACCPGuidance.pdf


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HACCP Essentials

  • Management commitment

  • HACCP training


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Most Important in HACCP

TEAMWORK!!


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Acknowledgments

  • This slide set is based on information provided by:

    • United States Department of Agriculture

    • United States Department of Health & Human Services

  • For more information, visit:

    • http://www.mypyramid.gov

    • http://www.fsis.usda.gov

    • http://www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines


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