Foodborne Illness Can Cause
Advertisement
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 98

MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Foodborne Illness Can Cause More than a Stomach Ache!. MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines. Alice Henneman, MS, RD University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County. Joyce Jensen, CFSP Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept.

Download Presentation

MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


My pyramid food safety

Foodborne Illness Can Cause

More than a Stomach Ache!

MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines


My pyramid food safety

Alice Henneman, MS, RD

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County

Joyce Jensen, CFSP

Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept.

Download this PowerPoint athttp://lancaster.unl.edu/food/mypyramid-foodsafety.shtml

Updated slightly January 2007


Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

  • Slide set is based on information provided by:

    • United States Department of Agriculture

    • United States Department of Health & Human Services

  • For more information, visit:

    • http://www.mypyramid.gov

    • http://www.fsis.usda.gov

    • http://www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines


Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the u s each year

Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year:

76 million peoplebecome ill

5,000 people die


Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms

Diarrhea

Fever

Upset stomach

Dehydration(sometimes severe)

Vomiting


Possible more severe conditions

Meningitis

Death

Possible more severe conditions

Paralysis


Don t count on these to test for food safety

Don’t count on these to test for food safety!

Sight

Taste

Smell


Even if tasting would tell why risk getting sick

Even IF tasting would tell … Why risk getting sick?

A “tiny taste” may not protect you …

as few as 10 bacteria could cause some foodborne illnesses!


Why gamble with your health

Why gamble with your health?

It takes about ½ hourto 6 weeks to become ill from unsafe foods.

You may become sick later even if you feel OK after eating.


Why risk other people s health

Why risk other people’s health?

Some people have a greater risk for foodborne illnesses. A food you safelyeat might make others sick.

Is the food safefor everyone at the table?


People with a higher risk of foodborne illness

People with a higher risk of foodborne illness

Infants

Young children andolder adults

Pregnantwomen

People with weakened immunesystems and individuals withcertain chronic diseases


Be a winner

Be a winner!

Increase your odds of preventing a foodborne illness in YOUR HOME!


Key recommendations for food safety

“Key recommendations”for food safety

The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give five“Key Recommendations” for food safety.

Source: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/recommendations.htm


My pyramid food safety

Recommendation 1:CLEAN

Washhands and food-contact surfaces.


My pyramid food safety

Wash your hands!

Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness.


How to wash hands

How to wash hands

  • Wet hands with WARM water.

  • Soap and scrub for 20 seconds.

  • Rinse under clean, running water.

  • Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel.


My pyramid food safety

Sneezing, blowing nose & coughing

Handling pets

Using bathroom orchanging diapers

AND before ...

Touching a cut or open sore

Handling food

Wash hands after …


Clean during food preparation

Clean during food preparation

Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.


Avoid spreading bacteria

Avoid spreading bacteria

  • Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipeup kitchen surfacesor spills.

  • Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.


Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria

Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria

  • Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for bacterial growth.

  • Have a good supplyof dishcloths to avoid reusing them before laundry day.

There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are worst offenders.~research by Dr. Charles Gerba


Recommendation 2 separate

Recommendation 2: SEPARATE

Separateraw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.


Use different cutting boards

… and a separate one for fresh produce.

Use different cutting boards

Use one cutting boardfor raw meat, poultry and seafood …


My pyramid food safety

When groovy isn’t a good thing

Replace cutting boards if theybecome excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves.


Use clean plates

Use clean plates

NEVER serve foods on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood unless the plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water.


Recommendation 3 cook

Recommendation 3: COOK

Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.


Here are the temperatures for cooking some foods

Here are the temperatures for cooking some foods …


Chicken and turkey

Chicken and turkey

Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts, legsand thighs, etc.) to165°F.


Pork egg dishes hamburger ground meats

Pork, egg dishes, hamburger & ground meats

Cook pork, egg dishes, hamburger and ground meats to 160°F.Cook ground poultry to 165°F.


My pyramid food safety

Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm,not runny.

You can’t stick a thermometer into a scrambled or fried egg.

How do you know when they’re done?


Leftovers

Leftovers

Reheat leftovers until a temperature of165°F is reached throughout the food.


Beef lamb veal steaks

Beef, lamb & veal steaks

Cook beef, lamb and vealsteaksand roasts to 160°F for medium doneness (145°F for medium rare).


For more information about using food thermometers visit this web site

For more information about using food thermometers, visit this Web site …


Chicken and turkey1

Chicken and turkey

Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts, legsand thighs, etc.) to165°F.


My pyramid food safety

The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!


Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature

Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature?

A

B

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Servicehttp://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm


My pyramid food safety

A

B

This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135°F.

This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F, even though it's pink inside.

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm


1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature

1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm


Types of food thermometers

dial instant-read

digital instant-read

dial oven-safe

disposable temperature

indicators

oven probe with cord

thermometer forkcombination

Types of food thermometers


Digital instant read

DIGITAL instant-read

  • Reads in 10 seconds

  • Place at least ½ inch deep (or asdirected by manufacturer)

  • Gives fast reading

  • Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods

  • Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking

  • Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time

  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

  • Available in "kitchen" stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


Dial instant read

DIAL instant-read

  • Reads in 15-20 seconds

  • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food

  • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups

  • Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stem

  • Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways

  • Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking

  • Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking time

  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

  • Readily available in stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


Dial oven safe

Dial oven-safe

  • Reads in 1-2 minutes

  • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food

  • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups

  • Not appropriate for thin foods

  • Can remain in food while it's cooking

  • Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high reading

  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


Oven probe with cord

Oven probe with cord

  • Can be used in most foods

  • Can also be used outside the oven

  • Designed to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered pot

  • Base unit sits on stovetop or counter

  • Cannot be calibrated

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


Disposable temperature indicators single use

Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use)

  • Reads in 5 -10 seconds

  • Place approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions)

  • Designed to be used only once

  • Designed for specific temperature ranges

  • Should only be used with food for which they are intended

  • Temperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reached

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


Thermometer fork combination

Thermometer-fork combination

  • Reads in 2-10 seconds

  • Place at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of food

  • Can be used in most foods

  • Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking

  • Sensor in tine of fork must be fully inserted

  • Check internal temperature of food near end of cooking time

  • Cannot be calibrated

  • Convenient for grilling

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp


Placing a food thermometer

Placing a food thermometer

  • Place in the thickest part of food.

  • Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle.

  • Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done."

  • For irregularly shaped food – such as with a beef roast – check the temperature in several places.

  • Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use!


Using a thermometer in thinner foods

Using a thermometer in thinner foods

For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, a DIGITAL instant-read food thermometer should be used if possible– as it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer.

Disposable temperature indicators are another option.

For really thin foods, it maybe necessary to inserta digital thermometer or disposable temperatureindicator at an angle.


Using a thermometer in thinner foods1

Using a thermometer in thinner foods

For an “instant-read” DIAL food thermometer, insert the probe in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2–3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.

When grilling or frying, to avoid burning fingers, it may be helpful to remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer.


Recommendation 4 chill

Recommendation 4: CHILL

Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly.


The two hour rule

The TWO-hour rule

Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90°F.

Perishable foods include:

  • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu

  • Dairy products

  • Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables

  • Fresh, peeled/cut fruits andvegetables


Danger zone

DANGER ZONE

Bacteria multiplyrapidly between 40 & 140°F


A multiplication quiz

A multiplication quiz

Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes!

How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIAleft at room temperature 7 hours?


Answer 2 097 152

Answer: 2,097,152!

Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours.


How to be cool part 1

How to be cool – part 1

  • Cool food in shallow containers. Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less.

  • Place very hotfoods on a rack atroom temperaturefor about 20minutes beforerefrigeration.


How to be cool part 2

How to be cool – part 2

It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm.

Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled.


Recommended refrigerator freezer temperatures

Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures

  • Set refrigerator at 40°F or below.

  • Set freezer at0°F.


Place an appliance thermometer in your refrigerator and freezer

Place an appliance thermometer in your refrigerator AND freezer


Monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures

Monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures

  • Place thermometer in the front of refrigerator/freezer in an easy-to-read location.

  • Check temperature regularly – at least weekly.


The thaw law

The THAW LAW

  • Plan ahead to defrost foods.

  • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.


When to leave your leftovers

When to leave your leftovers

  • Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.

  • If in doubt, toss it out!


Time to toss

Time to toss …

"If it walks out, let it go!"

~ seen on a refrigerator magnet


Recommendation 5 avoid

Recommendation 5: AVOID...

  • Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products

  • Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs

  • Raw and undercooked meat and poultry

  • Unpasteurized juices

  • Raw sprouts

Most at risk are infants, young children, pregnant women, older adults and theimmunocompromised.


My pyramid food safety

Food safety recommendationsfor food groups

The 2005 MyPyramid gives specificfood safety recommendationsfor each food group.


Fruits vegetables

Fruits & vegetables


Cleaning fruits vegetables

Cleaning fruits & vegetables

  • Remove and discard outer leaves.

  • Rinse under clean, running water just before preparingor eating.

  • Rub briskly – scrubbing witha clean brush or hands – to remove dirt and surface microorganisms.

  • Don’t use soap or detergent.


Cleaning fruits vegetables1

Cleaning fruits & vegetables

  • After washing, dry with a clean cloth or paper towel.

  • Moisture left on produce may promote survival and growth of microorganisms. Drying is critical if food won’t be eaten or cooked right away.

  • Cut away bruised anddamaged areas.


Wash this produce too

Wash this produce, too!

Bacteria on the outside of fruits can be transferred to the inside when fruit is peeled or cut.

Wash fruits – such as cantaloupe and other melons – under running water.


Handling fruits vegetables

Handling fruits & vegetables

  • Cover and refrigerate cut/peeled fruits and vegetables.

  • TOSS cut/peeled fresh produce if left at room temperature longer than TWO hours.


Separate fruits vegetables from other foods

Separate fruits & vegetablesfrom other foods

Keep fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry and seafood while shopping, preparingor storing them.


Read labels

Read labels

Read labels on bagged produce to determine if it is ready-to-eat.

Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce can be used without further washing if kept refrigerated and usedby the “use-by” date.


Dairy products

Dairy products


Dairy do s and don ts

Dairy do’s and don’ts

  • Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products such as some soft cheeses.

  • Refrigerate dairy foods promptly. Discard dairy foods left at room temperature for more than two hours – even if they look and smell good.

Do NOT drink milkdirectly from the carton.


Meat beans

Meat & beans


Avoid washing raw meat poultry

Avoid washing raw meat & poultry

Do NOT wash raw meatand poultry. Washingis not necessary.

Washing increases the dangerof cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils, and counter surfaces.


Refrigerator storage

Refrigerator storage

Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods.


Cook to safe temperatures

Cook to safe temperatures

Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs and raw/undercooked meat and poultry.

Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny.


Signs of safely cooked fish

Signs of safely cooked fish

  • Fin fish: Slip point of sharp knife into flesh; pull aside. Edges should be opaque, the center slightly translucent with flakes beginning to separate. Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to finish cooking. 

  • Shrimp, lobsters & crab: Turn red and flesh becomes pearly opaque. 

  • Scallops: Turn milky white or opaque and firm. 

  • Clams, mussels & oysters: Watch for their shells opening to know they’re done. Toss those that stay closed.

    The US Food & Drug Administration recommends cooking most seafood to an internal temperature of 145 degrees F for 15 seconds.

Source: United States Food & Drug Administrationhttp://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/797_home.html


Specific group recommendations

Specific group recommendations

These groups should avoid some types of fishand eat types lower in mercury:

  • Pregnant women and those who may become pregnant

  • Nursing mothers

  • Young children

    For more information: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/admehg3.html or call 1-888-SAFEFOOD.


Specific group recommendations1

Specific group recommendations

Pregnant women, older adults, and the immunocompromisedshould only eat deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated to steaming hot to avoid the risk of listeriosis.


My pyramid food safety

Let's play ...

Keep

or

Toss


Should you keep or toss

Should you keep or toss …

Pizza left on the counter overnight?


Toss it out

Toss it out!

Even if you reheat pizza left on the counter overnight, some bacteria can form a heat resistant toxin that cooking won’t destroy.


Should you keep or toss1

Should you keep or toss …

Hamburger thawed on the kitchen counter?


Toss it out1

Tossit out!

  • As with pizza left out more than TWO hours, bacteria may have formed heat-resistant toxins.

  • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.

  • Thaw packages of meat, poultry and seafood ona plate on the bottom shelfof the refrigerator to preventtheir juices from dripping on other foods.


Should you keep or toss2

Should you keep or toss …

Perishable food left out from the noon meal untilthe evening meal?


Toss it out2

Toss it out!

Perishable foods – such as meats, gravy and cooked vegetables – should be refrigerated within TWO hours.


Should you keep or toss3

Should you keep or toss …

Pumpkin pie stored at room temperature overnight?


Toss it out3

Toss it out!

  • Foods with eggs, milk, and a high moisture content – such as pumpkin pie – must be refrigerated.

  • Avoid keeping pumpkin pie at room temperature more than TWO hours, includingtime after baking ANDbefore being served.

  • Some commercial pumpkin pies – purchased at room temperature – must later be refrigerated. Check label for storage requirements; don’t buy them if label directions are unclear or missing.


Should you keep or toss4

Should you keep or toss …

Cut/peeled fruits and vegetables at room temperature for over TWO hours?


Toss it out4

Toss it out!

  • Once you have cut through the protective skin of fruits and vegetables, bacteria can enter.

  • Refrigerate cut or peeled fruits and vegetables within TWO hours.


Should you keep or toss5

Should you keep or toss …

Leftovers in the refrigerator forover a week?


Toss it out5

Toss it out!

  • Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.

  • You can’t always see or smell if a food is unsafe. It may be unsafe to taste a food.


Should you keep or toss6

Should you keep or toss …

A FULLpot of chicken soup stored in the refrigerator while still hot?


Can you guess

…(can you guess?)

How long would it take an 8-inch stock pot of steaming chicken soup to cool to a safe temperature in your refrigerator?


Would you believe 24 hours

Would you believe … 24 hours!

Remember: Transfer hot foodsto shallow containers to speed cooling.

TOSS IT OUT!


Should you keep or toss7

Should you keep or toss …

A turkey kept in your freezer for five years?


You decide

You decide!

Food kept frozen at 0°F is still safe to eat. However, it may not taste as good.

To assure best flavor, eat afrozen turkey within a year.


Remember

Remember:

When in doubt...


My pyramid food safety

Toss it out!


  • Login