Migration and fuel use in rural mexico
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 42

Migration and Fuel Use in Rural Mexico PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 48 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Migration and Fuel Use in Rural Mexico. Dale T. Manning UC-Davis. USAEE/IAEE North American Conference July 2013. Why care about fuel use?. Health Biomass fuel causes bronchitis and other lung diseases, heart disease, premature death—US EPA Environmental impacts

Download Presentation

Migration and Fuel Use in Rural Mexico

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Migration and fuel use in rural mexico

Migration and Fuel Use in Rural Mexico

Dale T. Manning

UC-Davis

USAEE/IAEE North American Conference

July 2013


Why care about fuel use

Why care about fuel use?

  • Health

    • Biomass fuel causes bronchitis and other lung diseases, heart disease, premature death—US EPA

  • Environmental impacts

    • Forest depletion, erosion, loss of habitat/biodiversity

    • National parks less effective if people depend park’s resources

  • Climate change

    • Wood: 0.39 kg CO2 per kWh

    • Coal: 0.37 kg CO2 per kWh

    • Kerosene: 0.26 kg CO2 per kWh

  • Quality of life

    • Time-consuming activity, TOC

  • http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/co2-emission-fuels-d_1085.html


    2 theories of fuel choice

    2 theories of fuel choice

    • Fuel ladder

    • Fuel stacking


    Main contributions

    Main contributions

    • Present theoretical model of fuel choice

    • Use model to show how migration changes fuel-choice incentives

    • Show empirical impact of out-migration on household fuel use


    Research question

    Research question

    • How does rural out-migration affect fuel choice in rural Mexico?

    Important because rural-urban migration is a part of development process!


    Theoretical framework

    Theoretical framework

    • Household producer

      • Home-cooked food

      • Agriculture

  • Given capital

    • Woodstove, gas stove

  • Chooses inputs

    • Labor/leisure

    • ENERGY SOURCE—Firewood or gas?


  • Theoretical framework1

    Theoretical framework

    • Non-separable model

      • Imperfect labor markets

      • Non-marketed resource, home-cooked food

  • Household makes consumption and labor allocation decisions simultaneously

  • Energy inputs chosen to minimized cost of meeting energy needs required for optimized consumption

    • Cost of gas: market price

    • Cost of firewood: value of time


  • Migration and labor allocation

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    Lto

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Migration and labor allocation1

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    VMP in Ag (market price)

    VMP in resource collection (non-market)

    Lto

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Migration and labor allocation2

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    VMP in Ag (market price)

    VMP in resource collection (non-market)

    Lto

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Migration and labor allocation3

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    VMP in Ag (market price)

    VMP in resource collection (non-market)

    Lto

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Migration and labor allocation4

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    What happens when a migrant goes to the US?

    Lto

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Migration and labor allocation5

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    1. Less total time available

    Ltm

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Migration and labor allocation6

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    2. Demand for firewood can change

    Ltm

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Migration and labor allocation7

    Migration and labor allocation

    $

    Theoretically ambiguous net impact

    (will likely decrease)

    Ltm

    Ag labor

    Firewood Collection


    Theoretically ambiguous

    Theoretically ambiguous

    • Investigate empirically

    • Rural Mexico

      • National Household Survey of Rural Mexico

      • Representative of ruralMexico

      • 80 communities, 14 states, 5 regions

      • 1543 households


    Rural population of mexico

    Rural Population of Mexico

    http://www.tradingeconomics.com/mexico/rural-population-percent-of-total-population-wb-data.html

    2010 rural population: 25,179,916


    As a percentage of total

    As a percentage of total

    http://www.tradingeconomics.com/mexico/rural-population-percent-of-total-population-wb-data.html


    Econometric estimation

    Econometric estimation

    Natural log of days per year collecting firewood

    :

    Indigenous

    Education

    Year

    Household size

    Hh income

    Community wage

    =1 if household has member in US

     IV with networks


    Econometric estimation1

    Econometric estimation

    Natural log yearly gas expenditure

    :

    Indigenous

    Education

    Year

    Household size

    Hh income

    Community wage

    =1 if household has member in US

     IV with networks


    Results

    Results


    Results1

    Results


    Results2

    Results

    Without a migrant, spend about 3 times as many person-days per year collecting firewood!

    Average is ~121 days


    Results3

    Results


    Results4

    Results


    Results5

    Results

    Approximately double gas expenditure!


    Results6

    Results


    Results7

    Results


    Results8

    Results

    Increase probability of having a gas stove by ~33%!

    Impact on gas expenditure larger when controlling for selection (Heckman)


    Results9

    Results


    Results10

    Results


    Results summar y

    Results summary

    • Households with US migrant spend less time collecting firewood

    • Spend more on gas

    • More likely to have a gas stove

    • But they don’t stop collecting firewood


    Implications for policy

    Implications for policy

    • Gas stove investment can be an obstacle

    • Households will use gas if it is cheaper

      • Can lower price of gas (e.g., improve delivery)

      • Increase perceived cost of firewood (health effects)

      • Increase opportunity cost of time

  • Households may add gas into fuel mix without switching completely

  • Beware of firewood markets

    • Especially if common-property resource

    • Conventional management may become easier


  • Thanks

    Thanks!


    Background

    Background

    • Fuel use/firewood collection connected to other sectors

      • Agriculture

      • Labor market development

  • Proposed theories:

    • Fuel ladder

    • Fuel stacking


  • Migration and fuel use in rural mexico

    Data

    • National Household Survey of Rural Mexico

      • PRECESAM, Rural Economies of the Americas and Pacific Rim (REAP)

  • 2002, 2007

  • Representative of rural Mexico—populations from 500 to 2499 people

  • 80 communities, 14 states, 5 regions

  • 1543 households, 10 states in 2010


  • Household economy

    Household economy


  • Login