ED 557 – 02E. Julie Briley Miranda Dean Kim Lacey Instructor: Dr. Sara Lawrence. Not all students know the connection between effort and achievement (Seligman, 1990,1994; Urdan, Migley, & Anderman, 1998). Strategies that Work: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition.
Instructor: Dr. Sara Lawrence
Not all students know the connection between effort and achievement (Seligman, 1990,1994; Urdan, Migley, & Anderman, 1998)
Strategies that Work:
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Providing RecognitionDefinition:Giving student rewards of praise for accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal; dealing with attitudes and beliefs
Generalizations about rewards:
Rewards do not necessarily have negative effects on intrinsic motivation
Rewards are most effective when they are contingent upon the attainment of some standard of performance
Abstract recognition is more effective in improving performance than are tangible rewards
Personalize recognition – a good time to do this is following the achievement of a specific performance goal
Use the pause-prompt-praise strategy – ask the student to pause during the difficult task, discuss the difficulty of the task, give the student specific suggestions on ways to improve the performance, if student improves, you provide praise
Use concrete symbols of recognition – use awards, certificates, or coupons
*Classroom Instruction That Works, Hill & Flynn, 2006.
Online Certificates for recognition http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/templateshttp://www.educationoasis.com/teacher_tools/Awards/awards_certificates.htmhttp://www.printablecertificateawards.comhttp://www.yahoo.americangreetings.com/
Is delivered contingently
Specifies the particulars
Orients students toward problem solving
Uses prior accomplishments
Is given for noteworthy effort
Attributed success to effort
Focuses student attention
Is delivered randomly
Shows bland uniformity
Rewards mere participation
Provides no information
Orients students toward comparing and competing
Is given without regard to effort or accomplishment
Attributes success to external reasons
Fosters exogenous attributions
Generalizations about rewards:
Students do not know of the direct effect that effort has on success
Students can learn that the effort they put into a task had a direct effect on their success
Connecting these two generalizations can increase motivation
Teach students that effort is important. This involves telling students stories about your own life and well known people
Ask students to remember times in which they succeeded because they didn’t give up. Example: The little engine that could (Brophy, 1981)
Track effort and achievement (Hill and Flynn, p. 88). Graphs and charts can be used by the students to see the connection between effort and progress of their achievement. Rubrics can be used to evaluate how the student feels their effort is on a scale from 1-4.
Example of a Classroom Rubric:
I ran until I finished. I tried even when it was difficult
I ran until I finished. I knew I couldn’t do any better
I tried, but I stopped when it was too difficult
I didn’t try.
(Hill and Flynn, p. 91)
Lemov, D. (2010). Teach Like a Champion. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass
Research has shown that student satisfaction and enjoyment of learning is greater when classroom environments are perceived as encouraging student involvement (Fry & Coe, 1980; Trickett and Moos, 1974) with a sense of personal responsibility (Ryan, 1982; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986), and when students themselves are committed to a sense of learning (Nicholls, 1985).
Least Invasive Forms of Intervention
Positive group correction
Anonymous individual correction
Private individual correction
Lightning-quick public correction
Ways to Emphasize compliance
Invent ways to maximize visibility
Be seen looking
Avoid marginal compliance
Leverage the power of unacknowledged behavior opportunities
Hill, J., Flynn, K. (2006). Classroom instuction that works with english language learners Alexandria, VA: ASCD
Brothy, J. (1981) Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition. American Education Research Association.
Lemov, D. (2010). Teach Like a Champion. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.
(Seligman, 1990,1994; Urdan, Migley, & Anderman, 1998)
http://www.paec.org/itrk3/files/pdfs/whatworksReinforce.pdf (2011, March 20)
The technology utilized for the preparation of this power point presentation included the following:
blackboard email (for the initial group contact),
Skype. Each group member downloaded Skype. We communicated through Skype via messaging (to se up conference calls), conduct conference calls and view the Power Point product as it was being completed.
Wiki Spaces. We set up a Wiki Space (see address above). During a conference call, we outlined activities to be completed by each group member. Miranda Dean completed the research on Reinforcing Effort and Julia Briley completed the research on Providing Recognition. After completing the research, they posted their information on the Wiki page. Kim Lacey took this information and placed it in the Power Point Presentation.