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Public Communication Contexts & Cultures The U.S. Press: Trends & Challenges. Professor Eric Freedman 21 September 2011 [email protected] Discussion Questions: Foreign Coverage. What types of foreign news do you pay attention to, and why? Where do you get your news about foreign events?

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Public Communication Contexts & Cultures The U.S. Press: Trends & Challenges

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Public communication contexts cultures the u s press trends challenges

Public Communication Contexts & Cultures The U.S. Press: Trends & Challenges

Professor Eric Freedman

21 September 2011

[email protected]


Discussion questions foreign coverage

Discussion Questions: Foreign Coverage

  • What types of foreign news do you pay attention to, and why?

  • Where do you get your news about foreign events?

  • What kinds of news about Lithuania would you want the public in other countries to pay attention to, and why?

  • What kinds of news about Lithuania would you not want the public in other countries to pay attention to, and why?


Lecture outline

Lecture Outline

  • Origins of the U.S. press

  • Media overview

  • Major challenges & trends

    -- Fragmentation & consolidation

    --Credibility & public trust

    -- Newsroom diversity

    -- Nonprofit news organizations

    -- Access to information

  • Journalism education


Common themes

Common Themes

  • Power of the media in a variety of countries and political systems.

  • Conflicts between those with political and economic power on one side and those with less power or no power on the other side.

  • Impacts of changing communication technologies and economic models.

  • Role of the press in bringing events to light, helping to set the public agenda for discussion and action by citizens and policymakers.


Points to ponder

Points to Ponder

  • How much do U.S. media shape the news and information agenda for other countries?

  • Which of the U.S. press’s challenges also face Lithuanian news organizations?

  • Do government officials and politicians in Lithuania try to bypass the press to sell themselves and their policies to the public. And how?


Glossary

Glossary

  • Convergence: Process where several media channels come together to work in harmony.

  • Gatekeeper: Role of the press in the filtering process that determines what news gets covered & how.

  • Bureau: News organization office located away from headquarters.

  • Freelancer: Journalist who is paid to handle individual assignments but is not on staff as a regular employee.

  • Breaking news: News that is happening now.


U s colonial newspapers

Colonial newspapers

U.S. Colonial Newspapers

Benjamin Harris's Publick OccurrencesBoth Foreign and Domestick (1690)

John Campbell's Boston News-Letter (1704)

James Franklin's New-England Courant (1721)

Jailed for printing "scandalous libels”

John Peter Zenger's New York Weekly Journal (1734)

Jailed for criticizing that colony's governor.


Public communication contexts cultures the u s press trends challenges

U.S. Constitutional Guarantee of Press Freedom

The First Amendment—1791

“Congress shall make no law respecting an

establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise

thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;

to the right of the people peacefully to assemble, and to

petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”

1798) made illegal writing publishing, or printing "any false scandalous and malicious writing" about the president, Congress, or the federal government.


Changing sources of political information

Changing Sources of Political Information


U s newspaper industry structure

U.S. Newspaper Industry Structure

  • Types of newspapers

  • National dailies (Wall Street Journal, USA Today)

  • Large metropolitan dailies

  • Suburban & small town dailies & weeklies

  • Free metropolitan give-aways

  • Alternative papers (usually weeklies)

  • Main revenue sources

  • Advertising

  • Circulation (subscriptions & single copies)

  • Major professional sources of content

  • Staff

  • Wire services (Associated Press, Reuters, Bloomberg)

  • Syndicate services

  • Freelance contributors


Public communication contexts cultures the u s press trends challenges

U.S. “Elite” Newspapers


Major types of magazines

Major Types of Magazines

  • Trade, professional and business magazines

  • Consumer magazines (Cosmopolitan, National Geographic, Sports Illustrated)

  • Industry, company, government or sponsored magazines

  • Webzines (online only) — convergence of magazines and the Internet


Public communication contexts cultures the u s press trends challenges

Major U.S. Television Broadcast Networks Carrying News


Television

Television

  • 3 major nation on-the-air networks (ABC, CNS, NBC), each with about 200 local affiliates in competition.

    On the air TV: Free to view.

  • Cable and now satellite and over-the-Internet TV have reshaped the face of modern TV. With fiber optic cable, 500-channel cable systems are becoming feasible.

    Cable & satellite: Pay to watch.


Job enlargement percent of journalists doing multimedia web tasks

“Job Enlargement”: Percent of Journalists Doing Multimedia & Web Tasks

2007 survey: Table from Beam & Meeks, “So Many Stories, So Little Time”


Writing assignment due 2011 10 5 10 of course grade

Writing Assignment due 2011-10-5(10% of course grade)

Purpose: Help you analyze how foreign affairs & events can affect Lithuania.

1. Pick a foreign affairs subject of current interest that has an impact on Lithuania

2. Do library &/or Internet research on the subject for background.

3. Interview at least 1 expert (you will get a higher grade if you interview at least 2 about the impact on Lithuania.

4. Write a short paper or newspaper-style article (450-550 words).


Advice on assignment

Advice on Assignment

  • Choose a narrow subject (for example, a new trade agreement or immigration study, not poverty, war, global warming etc.).

  • Find experts at universities, NGOs, businesses, government agencies.

  • Clearly organize your thoughts.

  • Focus on the impact. Do not fill the paper only with background.

  • Type & carefully proofread your paper before handing it in.


Reminder discussion questions on foreign coverage

Reminder: Discussion Questions on Foreign Coverage

  • What types of foreign news do you pay attention to, and why?

  • Where do you get your news about foreign events?

  • What kinds of news about Lithuania would you want the public in other countries to pay attention to, and why?

  • What kinds of news about Lithuania would you not want the public in other countries to pay attention to, and why?


Public communication contexts cultures the u s press trends challenges

Readings for Next WeekMAIN READINGTwo Decades of Failure: The Persistence of Authoritarian Press Controls in Post-Soviet Independent Central Asia,” Shafer, Freedman & Antonova,” Central Eurasian Studies Society, 2010. SUPPLEMENTAL READINGS“Tajikistan: BBC Reporter Charged with Extremism, Denied Lawyer” (EurasiaNet 2011); “Uzbekistan: Links between Journalists & Foreign Embassies Placed Under Control” (Ferghana News Service, 2011)


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