Engl 406 case studies in professional contexts seminar 2 lecture 2
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ENGL 406 Case Studies in Professional Contexts <Seminar 2> <Lecture 2>. Reminder…. ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts. Have you got your… Course Outline?. Recap of Lecture 1. ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts. Research: The Fundamentals

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ENGL 406Case Studies in Professional Contexts<Seminar 2><Lecture 2>


Reminder…

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • Have you got your…

  • Course Outline?


Recap of Lecture 1

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • Research: The Fundamentals

  • Case Study: The Fundamentals

  • Special topic: Sample Case Study

  • Past student’s work

  • Forming groups


Programme in Seminar 2 & Lecture 2…

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • Setting broad aim

  • Setting research questions

  • Reading Literature for Research

  • Dealing with Data

  • Group consultation arrangement

  • A.O.B.


Recap: The “Case Study” Procedure

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Considerations when choosing a BROAD aim

Recap:

a. Exploration of human traits

b. Understanding of complex social phenomena

c. Humanities and Social Sciences

d. Research questions: mainly “How” & “Why”


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Considerations when choosing a BROAD aim

i. Your interest/s


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Considerations when choosing a BROAD aim

i. Your interest/s

ii. Available resources


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Considerations when choosing a BROAD aim

i. Your interest/s

ii. Available resources

iii. Scale

iv. Length of time allowed


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Considerations when choosing a BROAD aim

i. Your interest/s

ii. Available resources

iii. Scale

iv. Length of time allowed

v. Meaning / Contribution


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Considerations when choosing a BROAD aim

i. Your interest/s

ii. Available resources

iii. Scale

iv. Length of time allowed

v. Meaning / Contribution

BE REALISTIC!!!


A. Setting Broad Aim

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Broad aim  Research TITLE

the LAST THING TO DECIDE


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • 1. ONE shared aim Different researches


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • 1. ONE shared aim Different researches

Different Research Questions


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • Broad aim 1:

  • - How do men and women speak differently?

  • Variations:

  • What kind of men/women?

  • Age? Relationship?

  • In what context?

  • How = what? Which aspect/s?


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • Broad aim 1:

  • - How do men and women speak differently?

  • Variations:

  • What kind of men/women?  Parents

  • Age? Relationship?  Adults and Children

  • In what context?  Local Hetero. Family

  • How = what? Which aspect/s?

  •  Modeling, family role…


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Broad aim 1:

- How do men and women speak differently?

Possible research questions:

1. How do male and female parents conduct family conversations differently in Hong Kong?

2. How do male and female parents perform their family duties by adopting different speech styles?

3. How do children model on their parents’ speech acts in family interactions? Why?


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • Broad aim 2:

  • - Why do patients not take drugs properly?

  • Possible research questions:

  • What proportion of patients do not comply with medical advice on drugs?

  • Is age/social class/education/type of illness a factor?

  • Is it more of a concern in private or public hospitals?

  • Do patients comply with other medical advice?


Exercise


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. ONE aim = MANY research questions…

i. Should make selection

- pick relevant & realistic ones

- may work on ONE only!!! (WHY?)

(DON’T BE TOO AMBITIOUS~)


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Too many research questions…

ii. Therefore…


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Too many research questions…

ii. Therefore…

What you CAN actually do

What you WANT to find out


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Framing research questions

= +


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Framing research questions

= +

Selecting

Modifying


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

  • 3. Framing research questions

  • i. Importance

  • - method/s to adopt

  • - information to be collected

  • - projected outcome/s


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Framing research questions

i. Importance

- method/s to adopt

- information to be collected

- projected outcome/s

Most Important STEP!!!


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Framing research questions

ii. Your choice

- within your capacity (Previous slide)

- be realistic

- relationship between different Qs

- ANSWER-ABLE questions!


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Framing research questions

iii. Tricks

- be SPECIFIC: when/where/who/what

- be EXACT in wording

- be NARROW

- be LOGICAL in sequencing Qs


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Example 1

Broad Aim: How do men and women speak differently?

Possible research questions:

1. How do male and female parents conduct family conversations differently in Hong Kong?

2. How do male and female parents perform their family duties by adopting different speech styles?

3. How do children model on their parents’ speech acts in family interactions? Why?


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Example 1

Broad Aim: How do men and women speak differently?

Possible research questions:

1. How do male and femaleparentsconduct familyconversations differently inHong Kong?

2. How do male and female parentsperform their family dutiesby adopting different speech styles?

3. How do children modelon their parents’speech acts infamily interactions? Why?


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Example 2

  • Broad Aim: Why do patients not take drugs properly?

  • Possible research questions:

  • What proportion of patients do not comply with medical advice on drugs?

  • Is age/social class/education/type of illness a factor?

  • Is it more of a concern in private or public hospitals?

  • Do patients comply with other medical advice?


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Example 2

  • Broad Aim: Why do patients not take drugs properly?

  • Possible research questions:

  • What proportion of patients do not comply with medical adviceon drugs?

  • Is age/social class/education/type of illnessa factor?

  • Is it more of a concern inprivate or publichospitals?

  • Do patients comply with other medical advice?


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Example 3

  • Broad Aim: How do Muslims view Jihad?

  • Possible research questions:

  • Do Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong regard Jihad as the will of Allah?

  • Does the duration of belief matter the view of Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong on Jihad?

  • How do comments on Al-Qaeda by the U.S. affect the belief of Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong?


B. Setting Research Questions

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Example 3

  • Broad Aim: How do Muslims view Jihad?

  • Possible research questions:

  • Do Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong regard Jihad as the will of Allah?

  • Does the duration of belief matter the view of Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong on Jihad?

  • How do comments on Al-Qaeda by the U.S. affect the belief of Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong?


Exercise


ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

C. Reading Literature for Research


C. Reading Literature for Research

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Literature in Research

Literature in Arts


ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

C. Reading Literature for Research

Literature in Research

Literature in Arts

Reading for academic support/proof

An academic field; The “Shakespeare”/ “Austen” thing


ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

C. Reading Literature for Research

Literature in Research

Literature in Arts

Reading for academic support/proof

An academic field; The “Shakespeare”/ “Austen” thing


C. Reading Literature for Research

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. THREE To-Dos

Step 1:

Step 1.5:

Step 2:


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. THREE To-Dos

Step 1: Data Collection

Step 1.5: Data Sorting

Step 2: Data Analysis


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. THREE To-Dos

Step 1: Data Collection

Step 1.5: Data Sorting

Step 2: Data Analysis

To be done to-and-fro


ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

D. Dealing with Data

2. Your attitude

From a Guinness advert:

“I’ve never tried it because I don’t like it.”


ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

D. Dealing with Data

2. Your attitude

From a Guinness advert:

“I’ve never tried it because I don’t like it.”


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Your attitude

i. Keep an open mind

ii. Forget about assumption

iii. Avoid prejudice/personal preference


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Your attitude

i. Keep an open mind

ii. Forget about assumption

iii. Avoid prejudice/personal preference

Be OBJECTIVE!


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Ways to enhance objectivity

i. be IN the context: experience it

ii. look for possible discrepant data

iii. have “triangulation” with teammates


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. “Good Data”; “Bad Data”

Any Criteria?


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. “Good Data”; “Bad Data”

i. Reliability

ii. Validity

iii. Generalisability


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. “Good Data”; “Bad Data”

i. Reliability

- Consistency of data among researchers

ii. Validity

iii. Generalisability


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. “Good Data”; “Bad Data”

i. Reliability

- Consistency of data among researchers

ii. Validity

- Relevance of data to the topic of focus

iii. Generalisability


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. “Good Data”; “Bad Data”

i. Reliability

- Consistency of data among researchers

ii. Validity

- Relevance of data to the topic of focus

iii. Generalisability

- Applicability of a research in other settings


D. Dealing with Data

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. “Good Data”; “Bad Data”

i. Reliability

- Consistency of data among researchers

ii. Validity

- Relevance of data to the topic of focus

iii. Generalisability

- Applicability of a research in other settings


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Our MAIN method:


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Our MAIN method:

- Case Study

2. Different sub-methods:

a. Documents

b. Interviews

c. Observations

d. Physical artefacts

e. Records


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Our MAIN method:

- Case Study

2.Different sub-methods:

a. Documents

b. Interviews

c. Observations

d. Physical artefacts

e. Records

Collecting multiple sources of evidence


Exercise


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

DOCUMENTS


D1. Data Collection: Documents

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= Reading literature for academic proof

1. Written evidence obtained in the past

2. Sources of written information:


ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

D1. Data Collection: Documents

= Reading literature for academic proof

3. Functions of reading documents

- Background information (i.e. Step 2)

- Clearer research orientation (i.e. Step 4)

- Academic support (i.e. Steps 6&7)


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

INTERVIEWS


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Two types

- Academic conversation with interviewee/s

 Qualitative


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Two types

- Academic conversation with interviewee/s

 Qualitative

- Filling out questionnaires

 Quantitative

SURVEY


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Two types

- Academic conversation with interviewee/s

 Qualitative

- Filling out questionnaires

 Quantitative

SURVEY


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Your role

- an ACTIVE participant:


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Your role

- an ACTIVE participant:

ASK questions +


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Your role

- an ACTIVE participant:

ASK questions +

LISTEN TO & JOT answers +


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Your role

- an ACTIVE participant:

ASK questions +

LISTEN TO & JOT answers +

FOLLOW UP on answers/

RESPOND to interviewee/s


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. Your role

- an ACTIVE participant:

ASK questions +

LISTEN TO & JOT answers +

FOLLOW UP on answers/

RESPOND to interviewee/s

You are part of it!!


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. WHY qualitative interview?

- Open questions (Closed  Questionnaire)

- Small number of people

 Accessible

 only THEY can give you answers

- Underlying reasons for objective evidence


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. WHY NOT qualitative interview?

- Very time-consuming: Pre- and Post-

- Anonymity

- Complicating simple questions


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. Gadgets to carry (face-to-face interview)


D1. Data Collection: Interviews

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

4. Gadgets to carry (face-to-face interview)

- Recorder: mp3/tape…

- Stationery

- Question sheet

- Suggested follow-up questions

 may consider telephone interview


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

OBSERVATIONS


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. THREE basic elements

i. to watch how people behave

ii. to listen to what people say

iii. to chip in ONLY WHEN NECESSARY

 Clarification

 Further details


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. TWO types


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. TWO types


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. TWO types


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. TWO types


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. TWO types


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. TWO types


D1. Data Collection: Observations

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

2. TWO types

More scientific

More judicial


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Physical

Artefacts


D1. Data Collection: Physical Artefacts

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= physical objects that give you research insights


D1. Data Collection: Physical Artefacts

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= physical objects that give you research insights


D1. Data Collection: Physical Artefacts

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= physical objects that give you research insights


D1. Data Collection: Physical Artefacts

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= physical objects that give you research insights


D1. Data Collection: Physical Artefacts

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= physical objects that give you research insights


D1. Data Collection: Physical Artefacts

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= physical objects that give you research insights


D1. Data Collection: Physical Artefacts

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Functions of examining physical objects

1. Physical proof of relevant literature

2. Discovery of exceptions

3. Exhibition of tendency

4. More insightful implications

5. Individual judgments


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Records


D1. Data Collection: Records

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= Taking rough notes for reference

= A log book


D1. Data Collection: Records

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

= Taking rough notes for reference

= A log book

1. Informal evidence: reminder

 not to be included in research report

2. Uncertain if something is useful

3. Daily progress check

4. Simple future plan


Exercise


D1. Data Collection

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Our study

Summary


D1.5. Data Sorting

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Not a step but a “research habit”

 from “Collection” to “Analysis”


D1.5. Data Sorting

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

1. Not a step but a “research habit”

 from “Collection” to “Analysis”

2. A Clean-up

 Selecting useful data

(= discarding meaningless data)

 Organising selected data

i.e. fitting data in research question/s

(may fine-tune later)


D1.5. Data Sorting

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

3. Importance of sorting

i. Better prepared for data analysis

ii. Further orientate your focus

iii. Know which area/s lack/s evidence

- collect more evidence?

- change research questions?

- elaborate the collected data?


D2. Data Analysis

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

Coming Soon…


E. Group Consultation Arrangement

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

- Last chance to change slot: TODAY!!!

!!!CAUTION!!!

NO SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT with other teachers

(ONLY in Weeks 6 &7!!!)

- Group consultation details

- VENUE: AG420

- RELAX~~~


F. A.O.B.

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

- Guest Lectures


F. A.O.B.

ENGL 406 – Case Studies in Professional Contexts

- Lecture 2 on Saturday:

i. Leftovers from Seminar 2

ii. Group Consultation: Details

- COURSE OUTLINE !!!~~~!!!


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