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Factors influencing successful integration of computer-based learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses. Ian Hughes School of Biomedical Sciences University of Leeds, UK [email protected] What CBL materials are available?. Simple drill software Electronic books

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Factors influencing successful integration of computer-based learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

Ian Hughes

School of Biomedical Sciences

University of Leeds, UK

[email protected]


What cbl materials are available
What CBL materials are available? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Simple drill software

  • Electronic books

  • Tutorial type programs

  • Simulations

  • Video material

  • Internet-based teaching resources

  • Electronic learning environments


What affects successful use
What affects successful use? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Usability

  • Suitability

  • Integration


Usability
Usability learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Quality, presentation & internal navigation

  • Does it fall over?

  • Do you have enough screens?

  • Can the network cope?

  • Will it be there tomorrow?

  • Will they charge you for it?

  • Is it in your control?

  • Can the students access it?


Suitability
Suitability learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Content?

  • Level?

  • Culture?

  • Language?

  • Learning style?

  • Added value compared to other delivery mode

  • Is there an alternative?


Integration
Integration learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Students simply provided with access to software over a network DON’T USE IT. Only 12% of students on a module actually accessed a piece of software associated with a module.

  • Use (and student satisfaction) increased to:

  • >40% when the software was demonstrated in class

  • >70% when associated with a set task

  • >90% when associated with an assessed task

  • There is a need to integrate software with the rest of the teaching material

  • Analogy with the laboratory class


So why don t teachers do it
So why don’t teachers do it? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • It takes time to produce material to integrate software into courses

  • Do teachers have the time to do this along with the other pressures we all feel?

  • 86% of pharmacologists identified shortage of time and lack of recognition and reward from their institution as the prime reasons why they did not introduce innovative teaching methods into their teaching.

    [TIPS 19, 257-262 (1998)]


So why don t teachers do it1
So why don’t teachers do it? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Do all teachers have the expertise to do this?

  • Attempts to integrate software into modules are often un-imaginative and do not enthuse students (e.g. look at the software and then answer these MCQ)

  • Of 8 groups developing support material 6 found significant difficulty in thinking of types of innovative materials which integrated software into courses.

  • All groups found devising methods for effective integration easier the second time around.


So what s the answer
So, what’s the answer? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

A TLRP

(Teaching and Learning Resource Pack)

  • a pre-prepared package of editable materials supplying teachers with a choice of methods with which to integrate a software package into a course

  • an editablewrap-around for a software package

  • TLTP project: Implementing technology based teaching and learning in pharmacology; 1998-2001; USD500k.


What do tlrps contain
What do TLRPs contain? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Prepared editable exercises and tasks - complete with questions, answers, instructions, marking schedules,

    - everything you, as a teacher need -

  • e.g. MCQ, EMSQ (questions, answers, explanations, instructions to set, provided stems)

  • poster titles, web pages, crosswords, fill-ins, workbooks

  • PBL tasks, guided scenarios, drug profiles, disease profiles

  • essay titles, practical schedules and marking schedules, glossary construction, definitions……………..,


Do they work for staff students
Do they work for staff & students? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • TLRPs evaluated in

    • staff & students in development universities

    • staff & students in universities external to project

      • pre- and post-TLRP use questionnaires

      • structured interviews

      • knowledge tests

      • staff diaries/logs of development process

        [Dewhurst & Noris]


Evaluation results
Evaluation - Results learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Students(data from 12 universities)

    • positive about using CBL/TLRP as adjunct to normal teaching rather than replacement

    • liked explicit learning objectives

    • some preferred CBL practical to the ‘real thing’

    • some had concerns about loss of tutor contact

    • good scores in knowledge assessments

      • mean marks (%  SD, n); 76  13 (42); 53  16 (55); 58  7 (6); 61  13 (60)


Evaluation results1
Evaluation - Results learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Staff (developing TLRPs)

    • enjoyed collaboration with colleagues

    • enjoyed the intellectual challenge

    • each TLRP takes an average of 70h to put together

    • the development time is shortened with experience

  • Staff (using TLRPs)

    • need to use new teaching methods and student-centred learning

    • very positive about the resulting teaching sessions

    • TLRP made introducing CBL and new teaching methods easier

    • big reduction in time needed to prepare materials:------

      • Simulation; 8-10 hours ---> 2 hours

      • Problem based learning; 30 hours ---> 3 hours

      • Case study; 60 hours ---> 2 hours

      • Work book; 32 hours --->0.5 hours


Are tlrps useful to new users
Are TLRPs useful to new users? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Carried out in-depth interviews with 6 first time users.

    • all found them really helpful - good example of how to use CBL e.g. good activities, ideas, assessments; good practical schedules; liked the glossaries

    • saved them considerable time - several days work achieved in a few hours

    • stimulated them to write their own TLRPs for other CBL programs

    • would definitely choose future CBL programs if TLRP available


Does it matter how cal is integrated
Does it matter how CAL is integrated? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

YES!!!! ONE CAL program; used in 3 universities; all with year 2 students of pharmacology; approval rating by students:----

  • provided with workbook which was assessed and a required part of the course; approval = 90%

  • provided with MCQ which had to be completed in pairs and a joint submission made; marked and marks count; approval = 78%

  • shown in a lecture and provided on the intranet; approval = 59%

  • simply made known that the material was available on the intranet but that use was voluntary; approval = 46%

    [response rate to questionnaire different; not at same stage in year 2; different numbers and mixes on courses]


So where are we going
So, where are we going? learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • 1994-1999 - development/production of CBL materials

    21st century

    integration/implementation of learning resources in courses

  • NOT just of CBL materials - of all types of learning resources

  • NOT doing this individually

  • Collaboration and sharing is the way forward - we no longer have the time or the resource keep re-inventing the wheel at every university


Teaching and learning resource packs tlrps
Teaching and learning resource packs (TLRPs) learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Developed collaboratively to provide editable shared materials to introduce new teaching into a course with minimal time commitment from the teacher

  • Can you afford not to be using one?

  • Can you contribute to the development of one?

  • Your LTSN will support you (£££!)


Internet based resources
Internet based resources learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • Lots available - quality? Integration?

  • Will they be there tomorrow?

  • Will they charge you?

  • What if it goes down?

  • Download or use on-line?

    DOG LAB: Vincenzi, http://courses.washington.edu/chat543/cvans/

    CVS MODULE: Cracowski, www-sante.ujf-grenoble.fr/SANTE/pharma/accueil.htm

    COURSE: Allain: med.univ-rennes1.fr/edud/pharmaco

    LABS: Dempster: www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/PhysPharm/index.html

    MATERIALS/SITES: British Pharmacological Society: bps.ac.uk


Integration1
Integration learning (CBL) materials into pharmacology courses

  • software just “available” on the network was looked at by 12% of the students!

  • Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

  • just available 37 9 2 0

  • seen in lecture 100 73 58 31

  • left out but examinable 100 95 78 62

  • specific work task 100 100 95 90

  • assessed in software 100 100 100 100

  • Does it improve learning?

  • In comparison with what? Students use in own time, spend their own money on it and complain if its not available.


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