Germany. History of Germany by Location: Beginning at its Darkest Hour. Berlin:. When Hitler took power in 1933 he set up permanent residence in Berlin. Berlin became the city where he consolidated his power, wiped out his rivals, led Germany, and committed suicide.
Beginning at its Darkest Hour
When Hitler took power in 1933 he set up permanent residence in Berlin. Berlin became the city where he consolidated his power, wiped out his rivals, led Germany, and committed suicide.
90% of Berlin was destroyed during WWII, yet the city remains littered with remnants of Hitler's Third Reich:
Hitler planned to completely rebuild Berlin. The FehrbellinerPlatz is a example of Nazi construction that not only was completed during WWII times but is still in use today.
The Berlin Dom was the scene of many Nazi parades and is still in existence today.
Reason for Construction:
West versus East: Democracy versus Communism.
Centered in Soviet Union occupation zone
West: set up a capitalist society resulting in rapid growth of their economy.
East: a communist society was established resulting in a dragging economy and restricted individual freedoms.
1950s-people in East Germany began to emigrate to West Germany
1960s-East Germany was rapidly losing labor force and population.
Desperate to keep its citizens, East Germany built the Berlin Wall to prevent citizens from crossing the border.
*Wall stretched over 100 miles
*Ran through center of Berlin, but also wrapped around West Berlin-cutting off West Berlin from the Rest of Germany.
*Evolved from a barbed wire fence to a permanent structure made from concrete blocks, topped with barbed wire.
*reached nearly 12 feet high and 4 ft wide with smooth pipe running across the bop to hinder peoples attempts to scale the wall.
*1989-wall included a 300 foot no-mans-land, an additional inner wall, soldiers patrolling with dogs, a raked ground that showed footprints, anti-vehicle trenches, electric fences, massive light systems, watch towers, bunkers, and minefields.
Fall of the Berlin Wall:
November 9, 1989- East German government allowed for the boarder to be opened. leading to the destruction of the wall
October 3, 1990: East and West Germany reunited into a single German State
*March 1933- Nazi government established first official concentration camp at Dachau
*Established for political prisoners, many served a specific time and were released
*Was not a extermination camp like Auschwitz
*held a small number of Jews; majority were political prisoners of war
*35,000-43,000 prisoners died at Dachau and sub camps
*liberated by US Army on April 29, 1945
Picture: 22 Nazi officials in court, defendants seen on right of photo.
How to seek legal justice for crimes of the holocaust?
The IMT was created as a reaction to the Holocaust.
Otober 1945- IMT formally indicated that the Holocaust was “a crime against humanity.”
The trials at Nuremberg set precedents in international law, documentation of historical record keeping to aid in the search for justice.
Government of GermanyOverview 1871-Present
German Chancellery Building (Berlin)
*Gross domestic product: measure of a country’s overall economic output
Current conversion rate
$1 = € 0.80German Currency
Euro and Cent are used as both singular and plural when following a numeral. However, when talking about individual coins, the plurals Euros and Cents are used
(English, Dutch, Swedish,
German) b d g p t k f ɵ x (h)
no change or other changes
West East North
Latin Oscan Umbrian
Portuguese Spanish French Italian Catalan
Modern Standard German
Old Frisian Old Franconian Old Saxon
Dutch Flemish Afrikaans
Modern Low German
August Schleicher (1821-1868) developed the Staummbaumtheorie (family tree theory) which explains the way words can be traced from one language to another or within families using Jacob Grimm’s Law on sound shifts.
*Less obvious cognates; does not closely resemble the English word but are still cognates.
**Part of the Consonant Sound Shift (further information below).
***Words in English borrowed from German.
*Pronounce every letter
In Germany and in a German home there a definite eating hours. Everyone eats all of their meals with the family, and you should never be late because it is considered very rude.
-Twelve is lunchtime for almost everyone in Germany. People all over Germany leave work at twelve to go home and eatwith their families. Almost all shops and businesses close at around 12 and theydon't reopen until about 1 or 2 pm.
-Lunch is the bigger hot meal of the day (similar to dinner in America). After lunch it's the quiet hour.
-This is the time that you can't play your radio very loud, and it's polite to hold off calling someone at this time.
-German students usually use this time to do their homework, to study or to take a nap.
-In Germany dinner is a small light meal (similar to the American Lunch), and is eaten at different times in different families.
-Dinner is something small like a baguette and other breads, with cheeses, (Jarlsberg, cream cheese, -and some French cheeses)ham, smoked sausages, and a salad.
Spatzle (Egg Noodles)
Kartoffelsalat (Potato Salad)
Sachertorte (Chocolate-Apricot Cake)
Gulaschsuppe (Goulash Soup)
Zwiebelkuchen (Onion Pie)
Manners for Eating:
You should always have both hands on the table or they should at least be visible.
Your plate should always be virtually clean after you eat.
If you leave something on your plate it is thought to mean that you didn't like the food.
When you are finished with your meal, as a signal to everyone, the fork and knife are placedtogether, tips toward the middle of the plate andhandles toward your right hand.
January 20, 1942
“Fifteen men joined together to plan the implementation of the "Final Solution" against the Jews.”
“The plan was to evacuate Jews from west to east. Supposedly, Jews were to be sent to the East to work in forced labor, though it was understood that "in the course of which action a great part will undoubtedly be eliminated by natural causes."
“Within only an hour or hour and a half, the implementation of the Final Solution had been planned and the death sentence of millions passed down. “
*Berlin is the capital and the biggest
city of Germany.
* It has a population of about 3.5 million
The Heart of Berlin
Checkpoint Charlie was a checkpoint on the Berlin Wall that was used to enter West Berlin.
Checkpoint Charlie was also the most famous checkpoint.
The checkpoints on the Berlin wall got their names from the American Alphabet. The other checkpoints were called Alpha and Bravo.
The checkpoint is located in Friedrichstadt neighborhood in the heart of Berlin.
The main function of the wall was to register and inform members of the Western military forces before they entered East Berlin.
Checkpoint Charlie was subject to many movies and appeared in many spy novels in the Cold War Era.
In the early years that the checkpoint was erected, it was the sight of a few stand offs between the Americans and the Soviets.
Checkpoint Charlie was removed I June of 1990, when the German reunification was complete.Checkpoint Charlie
*Built by Kind Ludwig II.
*Construction began in 1869
Removal from Power:
*Rooms completed by Kings death-14.
a. Staircase Tower e. Hall i. Lower Courtyard b. Knights' House f. Entrance Hall j. Gateway Building c. Square Tower g.Palask. Staircase Tower d. Connecting Building h. Upper Courtyard l Bower
Study was used to enter West Berlin.Through the Castle
Schwarzwald was used to enter West Berlin.
Elevation: 1,493 meters = 4898.24 ft
Which is the highest peak: Feldberg
Area: 12,000 km² = 4,600 mi²The Black Forest
Feldberg is the highest mountain in the Black Forest, and in Germany outside the Alps.
Munich Night Life (Day 2,3, and 4) was used to enter West Berlin.
This famous pub is open to locals and tourist friendly! Its unique charm comes from the Bavarian music and the handful of regulars who gather at the bar. Beer and Schmankerl (roast pork with trimmings) complete the set up. In the summertime 'real' locals make for its wonderful courtyard, while the Festsaal room hosts a Bavarian evening with music every night
Cost for Admission: EUR 4.50
Cost for Main Meals: EUR 10-15
Cost for Small Meals: EUR 4.45
Cost of a Liter of Beer: EUR 5.70
Atomic CafeA small nightclub right in the city centre (mainly frequented by students). Comfy sofas next to the dance floor make for a cozy and unpretentious atmosphere for tourists.
Fast Food Theater
This restaurant does not serve fast food at all, but you had better eat within the 90 minutes between admission and the start of the performance in order not to miss any detail of the exciting program! Acts include: stand-up comedy and improvisation theatre. Beware, because they are known to put tourists on the spot for an unforgettable night!
What is the Glockenspiel? (Day 3) was used to enter West Berlin.
It is a gigantic clock located in Marienplatz at the heart of Munich. It consists of 43 bells and 32 life-size figures. Every day at 11 a.m. (as well as 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. in summer) it chimes and re-enacts two stories from the 16th century to the amusement of mass crowds. The whole show lasts somewhere between 12 and 15 minutes long depending on which tune it plays that day. At the very end a very small golden bird at the top of the Glockenspiel chirps three times, marking the end of the spectacle.
Nuremburg Virtual Tour
Nuremburg Virtual Tour 2