NOAA P-3 activities during NAME. Michael Douglas, NSSL Co-PI’s: Bill Cotton CSU Joe Zehnder, ASU G.V. Rao, SLU.
Michael Douglas, NSSL
Bill Cotton CSU
Joe Zehnder, ASU
G.V. Rao, SLU
Comparison between a 1000-500 mb moisture flux analysis based on 11 years of radiosonde observations (left) and from diagnosis of vertically integrated water vapor flux model output from a recent study (after Bosilovich et al., 2003) Note the qualitative disagreement between the fields over the Gulf of California.
Porpoising flights for q-flux missions
Porpoising and level-horizontal legs for LLJ missions
Porpoising, level legs, and possible dropsonde deployment for MCS and surge genesis flights
Level legs and short soundings for diurnal cycle flights
a) Mean moisture flux field estimation over the NAME tier 1 domain (6 flights, 48 h requested)
These flights will provide an accurate estimate of the horizontal transport of water vapor into the southern Gulf of California during enhanced, normal, and reduced rainfall episodes over the NAME Tier 1 domain.
300 m/min from 100m ASL to 2000 m ASL ~ 6.3 min + 1 min at bottom and 1 min at top gives ~ 15 min per cycle (2 soundings). This gives spatial density at top or bottom of sounding of ~ 100 km with airspeed of 225 kts.The spatial density of the observations is twice this (~ 50 km) at the intermediate level of ~1000m ASL...Eight (8) soundings per hour is another way to look at it, and for a ~7 hr flight this might be ~ 50+ soundings!
P-3 flight across Gulf and then returning along center of Gulf provides both horizontal and vertical structure of the southerly flow. (flight plan schematic, subject to modification)
LLJ flight schematic and the associated moisture flux variability (2 flights, 16h requested)legs 1-6 porpoising from 100 m - 1400 m aslpattern at 7 (heavy line)6 levels, 3 min at each level, normal to wind...Legs 8-12 return porpoise from 100m to ~1200 m, inversion dependent.Last leg (12) along same line as leg 1 to check for time changes during flight(~8 hr flight)
c) Genesis of gulf surge events (2 flights, 16h requested) and the associated moisture flux variability (2 flights, 16h requested)
P-3 would provide detailed surface to mid-level (~500 mb) structure of mesoscale convective systems associated with surge genesis and also the mesoscale structure of the associated surge boundary propagating up the Gulf of California.
Sounding network will
not describe this with
especially over the
Gulf of California.
d) Horizontal structure and evolution of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations (2 flights, 18h requested)To measure horizontal gradients associated with the sea-breeze /land-breeze and mountain /valley circulations at better resolution than can be provided by the NAME sounding network. These data are critical for comparisons with model simulations of the flow during specific events.P-3 data useful, but not critical, to this aspect... however, higher spatial resolution over ocean only feasible with aircraft - though shorter range aircraft could do this it would not have endurance for 8 hr etc...
e) Mesoscale convective systems and/or their residuals (2 flights, 16h)if over rugged terrain flights will be confined to above 10K ftmay involve either porpoising between 10K to 18K ft and doppler legs -dependent on stratiform precip)mapping of potential vorticity field (wind plus stability)over 700-500 mb layer
Daily communication with Tucson Operations Center... but PI’s will make separate forecasts specific for P-3 activities in Mazatlan.
Coordination with sounding network may be desirable, but possibly not always feasible.Most likely coordination should be for moisture flux flights, to be held during some “normal” IOP days...
P-3 observations won’t directly contribute to budget study aspects of NAME, other than the moisture flux flights, which will be a self-contained activity... and only on a relatively small number of days.
P-3 would sample both typical days (LLJ and normal q-flux conditions) and anomalous days (gulf surge/strong LLJ, MCS, strong q-flux days)
Flights to describe diurnal cycle should be as “climatological” as possible...