Origins of the indo europeans
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Origins of the Indo-Europeans. Ancient Greece Spring 2011. Discover of the Indo-European Language Family. Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859) Grimm German Grammar (1819) History of the German Language (1848) German Dictionary (1854) Rasmus Rask (1787-1832)

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Origins of the Indo-Europeans

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Origins of the indo europeans

Origins of the Indo-Europeans

Ancient Greece

Spring 2011


Discover of the indo european language family

Discover of the Indo-European Language Family

  • Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859) Grimm

    • German Grammar (1819)

    • History of the German Language (1848)

    • German Dictionary (1854)

  • Rasmus Rask (1787-1832)

    • Comparisons between German, Slavonic, Persian and Indian languages

    • Rask’s -- Grimm’s Law

  • Franz Bopp (1791-1867)

    • Comparative Grammar (1833/52)

  • August Schleicher (1821-1868)

    • First Divisions of the Indo-European Peoples (1853)

    • Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages (1861/62)


Comparative vocabulary

Comparative Vocabulary

EnglishGermanGreekLatinIrishFrenchRussianBengali

Oneeinshenunusaonunodinek

Twozweiduoduododeuxdvadvi

Threedreitreistrestritroistritri

fourviertettaresquattuorceathairquatrechetyrecar

Fivefunfpentequinquecuigcinqpyatpac

sixsechshexsexsesixsheshtchay

Sevensiebenheptaseptemseachtseptsemsat

Eightachtoktooctoochthuitvosemat

Nineneunenneanovemnaoineufdevyatnay

tenzehndekadecemdeichdixdesyatdas


Rask s grimm s law

Rask’s- Grimm’s Law

bh> b > p > f

dh > d > t > th

gh > g > k > x(ch, h)

ghw > gw > kw > x(ch,h)w

Bhratr > brother > bratr> frater

Pada > pous > pes/pedis > fuss > foot

Gelandros > gelumas > gelu > kalt > cold

Quos- > quos > que > cso > hvat > what


Indo european language family according to august schleicher 1861

Indo-European Language Familyaccording to August Schleicher (1861)

Italic

Italo-Celtic

Celtic

Germanic

Slavic

Germano-

Balto-Slavic

Proto-

Indo-European

Baltic

Aryan

Indo-Aryan

Indic


Problems

Problems

  • Time and Place – “homeland” and divisions

  • Relationship to other language families

    • Uralic, Altaic, Kartvelian, Semitic (Afro-Asiatic)

  • Hittite Problem

  • Tocharian Problem

  • Relation of Greek to other Languages

  • Mechanics of dissemination

  • Was there an Urspracheat all?


Indo european language family according to francesco adranos 1982

Indo-European Language Family according to Francesco Adranos (1982)

Phase I

Archaic Proto Indo-European

Anatolian

Phase II

Western PIE

Tocharian

Southern PIE

PhaseIII

Germano-Balto-Slavic

Indo-Aryan

Celtic

Italic

Greek and Armenian

Indo-Aryan


Origins of the indo europeans

Uralic (Finno-Ugric)

Gimbutas

Kartvelian

Gamkrelidze

Ivanov

Greek

Hittite

Renfrew

Mitanni

(Indo –Aryan)

Afro-Asiatic (Semitic)


Origins of the indo europeans

Forest

Foragers

Steppe

Spread of Agriculture

6500-5500 BC


Origins of the indo europeans

Foragers

Sredny Stog

“Old Europe”

The Growth of Old Europe and the Steppe Cultures

5500-3800 BC


Origins of the indo europeans

Yamnaya Horizon

Tripolye

“Old

Europe”

Old Europe and the Steppe Cultures

3600-3000 BC


Climate change and the end of old europe

Climate Change and the End of Old Europe


Origins of the indo europeans

Yamnaya Horizon

Tripolye

Ustavo Culture

Hittite

Luwian

The Coming of the Indo-Europeans

3000-2500 BC


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