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Origins of the Indo-Europeans. Ancient Greece Spring 2011. Discover of the Indo-European Language Family. Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859) Grimm German Grammar (1819) History of the German Language (1848) German Dictionary (1854) Rasmus Rask (1787-1832)

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Origins of the indo europeans

Origins of the Indo-Europeans

Ancient Greece

Spring 2011


Discover of the indo european language family
Discover of the Indo-European Language Family

  • Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859) Grimm

    • German Grammar (1819)

    • History of the German Language (1848)

    • German Dictionary (1854)

  • Rasmus Rask (1787-1832)

    • Comparisons between German, Slavonic, Persian and Indian languages

    • Rask’s -- Grimm’s Law

  • Franz Bopp (1791-1867)

    • Comparative Grammar (1833/52)

  • August Schleicher (1821-1868)

    • First Divisions of the Indo-European Peoples (1853)

    • Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages (1861/62)


Comparative vocabulary
Comparative Vocabulary

EnglishGerman Greek Latin Irish French Russian Bengali

One eins hen unusaon un odinek

Two zwei duo duo do deuxdvadvi

Three dreitreistres tri trois tri tri

four viertettaresquattuorceathairquatrechetyre car

Five funfpentequinquecuigcinqpyatpac

six sechs hex sex se six sheshtchay

Seven siebenheptaseptemseachtseptsem sat

Eight achtoktooctoochthuitvosem at

Nine neunenneanovemnaoineufdevyat nay

ten zehndekadecemdeichdixdesyat das


Rask s grimm s law
Rask’s- Grimm’s Law

bh> b > p > f

dh > d > t > th

gh > g > k > x(ch, h)

ghw > gw > kw > x(ch,h)w

Bhratr > brother > bratr> frater

Pada > pous > pes/pedis > fuss > foot

Gelandros > gelumas > gelu > kalt > cold

Quos- > quos > que > cso > hvat > what


Indo european language family according to august schleicher 1861
Indo-European Language Familyaccording to August Schleicher (1861)

Italic

Italo-Celtic

Celtic

Germanic

Slavic

Germano-

Balto-Slavic

Proto-

Indo-European

Baltic

Aryan

Indo-Aryan

Indic


Problems
Problems

  • Time and Place – “homeland” and divisions

  • Relationship to other language families

    • Uralic, Altaic, Kartvelian, Semitic (Afro-Asiatic)

  • Hittite Problem

  • Tocharian Problem

  • Relation of Greek to other Languages

  • Mechanics of dissemination

  • Was there an Urspracheat all?


Indo european language family according to francesco adranos 1982
Indo-European Language Family according to Francesco Adranos (1982)

Phase I

Archaic Proto Indo-European

Anatolian

Phase II

Western PIE

Tocharian

Southern PIE

PhaseIII

Germano-Balto-Slavic

Indo-Aryan

Celtic

Italic

Greek and Armenian

Indo-Aryan


Uralic (Finno-Ugric)

Gimbutas

Kartvelian

Gamkrelidze

Ivanov

Greek

Hittite

Renfrew

Mitanni

(Indo –Aryan)

Afro-Asiatic (Semitic)


Forest

Foragers

Steppe

Spread of Agriculture

6500-5500 BC


Foragers

Sredny Stog

“Old Europe”

The Growth of Old Europe and the Steppe Cultures

5500-3800 BC


Yamnaya Horizon

Tripolye

“Old

Europe”

Old Europe and the Steppe Cultures

3600-3000 BC



Yamnaya Horizon

Tripolye

Ustavo Culture

Hittite

Luwian

The Coming of the Indo-Europeans

3000-2500 BC


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