Origins of the indo europeans
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Origins of the Indo-Europeans. Ancient Greece Spring 2011. Discover of the Indo-European Language Family. Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859) Grimm German Grammar (1819) History of the German Language (1848) German Dictionary (1854) Rasmus Rask (1787-1832)

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Origins of the Indo-Europeans

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Origins of the Indo-Europeans

Ancient Greece

Spring 2011


Discover of the Indo-European Language Family

  • Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859) Grimm

    • German Grammar (1819)

    • History of the German Language (1848)

    • German Dictionary (1854)

  • Rasmus Rask (1787-1832)

    • Comparisons between German, Slavonic, Persian and Indian languages

    • Rask’s -- Grimm’s Law

  • Franz Bopp (1791-1867)

    • Comparative Grammar (1833/52)

  • August Schleicher (1821-1868)

    • First Divisions of the Indo-European Peoples (1853)

    • Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages (1861/62)


Comparative Vocabulary

EnglishGermanGreekLatinIrishFrenchRussianBengali

Oneeinshenunusaonunodinek

Twozweiduoduododeuxdvadvi

Threedreitreistrestritroistritri

fourviertettaresquattuorceathairquatrechetyrecar

Fivefunfpentequinquecuigcinqpyatpac

sixsechshexsexsesixsheshtchay

Sevensiebenheptaseptemseachtseptsemsat

Eightachtoktooctoochthuitvosemat

Nineneunenneanovemnaoineufdevyatnay

tenzehndekadecemdeichdixdesyatdas


Rask’s- Grimm’s Law

bh> b > p > f

dh > d > t > th

gh > g > k > x(ch, h)

ghw > gw > kw > x(ch,h)w

Bhratr > brother > bratr> frater

Pada > pous > pes/pedis > fuss > foot

Gelandros > gelumas > gelu > kalt > cold

Quos- > quos > que > cso > hvat > what


Indo-European Language Familyaccording to August Schleicher (1861)

Italic

Italo-Celtic

Celtic

Germanic

Slavic

Germano-

Balto-Slavic

Proto-

Indo-European

Baltic

Aryan

Indo-Aryan

Indic


Problems

  • Time and Place – “homeland” and divisions

  • Relationship to other language families

    • Uralic, Altaic, Kartvelian, Semitic (Afro-Asiatic)

  • Hittite Problem

  • Tocharian Problem

  • Relation of Greek to other Languages

  • Mechanics of dissemination

  • Was there an Urspracheat all?


Indo-European Language Family according to Francesco Adranos (1982)

Phase I

Archaic Proto Indo-European

Anatolian

Phase II

Western PIE

Tocharian

Southern PIE

PhaseIII

Germano-Balto-Slavic

Indo-Aryan

Celtic

Italic

Greek and Armenian

Indo-Aryan


Uralic (Finno-Ugric)

Gimbutas

Kartvelian

Gamkrelidze

Ivanov

Greek

Hittite

Renfrew

Mitanni

(Indo –Aryan)

Afro-Asiatic (Semitic)


Forest

Foragers

Steppe

Spread of Agriculture

6500-5500 BC


Foragers

Sredny Stog

“Old Europe”

The Growth of Old Europe and the Steppe Cultures

5500-3800 BC


Yamnaya Horizon

Tripolye

“Old

Europe”

Old Europe and the Steppe Cultures

3600-3000 BC


Climate Change and the End of Old Europe


Yamnaya Horizon

Tripolye

Ustavo Culture

Hittite

Luwian

The Coming of the Indo-Europeans

3000-2500 BC


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