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Between the Wars 1919-1939 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Between the Wars 1919-1939. The Twenty Year Crisis. The Post War Era – 1920’s. Rise of leisure activities & purchase of consumer goods Shorter workdays and slowly improving economies = more money/time for fun Lindbergh’s first solo flight across Atlantic sign of new era of progress

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Between the Wars 1919-1939

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Between the Wars1919-1939

The Twenty Year Crisis

The Post War Era – 1920’s

  • Rise of leisure activities & purchase of consumer goods

  • Shorter workdays and slowly improving economies = more money/time for fun

  • Lindbergh’s first solo flight across Atlantic sign of new era of progress

  • Prohibition (1920-1933)- difficult to enforce as many enjoyed time in Jazz clubs

First movie with sound

Police raid during Prohibition

I. Postwar Prosperity Crumbles

Signs of Economic Troubles

Farmers– struggled while industry prospered (demand fell-prices fell-farmers not making money and can’t pay debt)

Protectionism – economic nationalism – limit trade with other nations to protect domestic industry

Tariffs – Tax on imports, raises prices to protect country from foreign competition

Stock Market

Black Tuesday – stock market crashed (prices fell = stocks worth much less than people bought them for)

Speculation– risky investments in stock market (people hoping to get rich quick).

Wall Street 10/29/29

The Great Depression

  • Worldwide (global) depression (1929-1940)

    • prices and wages fell

    • business activity slowed

    • unemployment rose

  • Goods available but no money to buy them

  • Tried Economic Nationalism – limited trading actually hurt countries

Can you read the banner?

Herbert Hoover

  • President of the U.S. when the Depression began

  • He did very little to improve the effects of the Depression (believed gov’t should act as a facilitator and not offer direct relief)

  • Lost election to FDR in 1932

Franklin D. Roosevelt Elected President in 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944

The New Deal

  • Programs of relief and reform

  • Gave money to states for food, clothing, shelter and created job through work programs (build roads, bridges, etc)

    Social Security Act

  • provided for unemployment and old-age benefits

Programs Under New Deal

II. Political Tensions After WWI

France’s Postwar Difficulties

  • The Economy – government and individuals in debt (land in ruins, inflation, cost of Maginot line)

  • International Affairs – Locarno Pact pledged that countries would peacefully settle all future disputes

  • Political Unrest – strikes in various industries; Popular Front came to power, then fell; extremist actions

Great Britain After WWI

  • Labor Troubles – outdated industry, unemployment (25%), unions wanted increase in wages

  • Ireland – bloody revolt against Great Britain; Irish Republican Army fought for independence

Eastern Europe

  • Weak economies

  • Conflicts between socialists and conservatives (government controlled economy or command economy vs. free market)

  • New boundaries caused unrest

III. Fascist Dictatorships

The Rise of Fascism in Italy

  • Fascism – dictatorship and totalitarianism, opposed communism and democracy (rigid control through force/censorship)

  • Mussolini’s rise to power – appointed Fascists to all official positions in center government

  • The corporatist state – major economic activities were organized similar to corporations

The Nazis and Hitler

  • Treaty of Versailles- viewed as humiliating and unfair

  • Nazi Party – extremely nationalistic, anti-Semitic

  • Hitler – planned racial purity, repeal the Treaty of Versailles, created anti-communist hysteria

IV. Dictatorship in the Soviet Union

Review: Russian Revolution

  • Why was there a revolution in Russia? Who came to power afterward?

  • After Lenin died there was a struggle for power between Trotsky and Stalin. Stalin prevails.

Write the answer in your notes

  • If you had a choice, would you rather live under a communist controlled country or one led by a fascist dictator. Explain using a specificexample to support your choice.

Russia Under Lenin

  • New Economic Policy – nationalized industries (government owns them now), collective farms (peasants were asked to join farms together for better production)

    • 1929 – 4% by 1931 – more than 50%

  • Women’s Roles – gave women more rights, seen as equal to men

  • Education was a priority

The Five-Year Plan

  • Ambitious agricultural, industrial, and social goals to create a modern, industrialized society

  • Caused hardships for Soviet people, were forced to comply

Stalin’s Dictatorship

  • Government Under Stalin – purge of disloyal party members, extended to general population

  • Foreign Policy – wanted rest of world to accept Soviet Union and tried to spread Communism (Comintern)

  • How did Stalin rise to power?

    • Gained control of communist party after Lenin’s death

  • Why did the Soviet system of government make the development of a police state possible?

    • Before communism the Czars used secret police and spies to maintain control of the people

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