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Between the Wars 1919-1939. The Twenty Year Crisis. The Post War Era – 1920’s. Rise of leisure activities & purchase of consumer goods Shorter workdays and slowly improving economies = more money/time for fun Lindbergh’s first solo flight across Atlantic sign of new era of progress

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Between the Wars1919-1939

The Twenty Year Crisis


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The Post War Era – 1920’s

  • Rise of leisure activities & purchase of consumer goods

  • Shorter workdays and slowly improving economies = more money/time for fun

  • Lindbergh’s first solo flight across Atlantic sign of new era of progress

  • Prohibition (1920-1933)- difficult to enforce as many enjoyed time in Jazz clubs


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First movie with sound

Police raid during Prohibition



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Signs of Economic Troubles

Farmers– struggled while industry prospered (demand fell-prices fell-farmers not making money and can’t pay debt)

Protectionism – economic nationalism – limit trade with other nations to protect domestic industry

Tariffs – Tax on imports, raises prices to protect country from foreign competition


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Stock Market

Black Tuesday – stock market crashed (prices fell = stocks worth much less than people bought them for)

Speculation– risky investments in stock market (people hoping to get rich quick).



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The Great Depression

  • Worldwide (global) depression (1929-1940)

    • prices and wages fell

    • business activity slowed

    • unemployment rose

  • Goods available but no money to buy them

  • Tried Economic Nationalism – limited trading actually hurt countries



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Herbert Hoover

  • President of the U.S. when the Depression began

  • He did very little to improve the effects of the Depression (believed gov’t should act as a facilitator and not offer direct relief)

  • Lost election to FDR in 1932


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Franklin D. Roosevelt Elected President in 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944

The New Deal

  • Programs of relief and reform

  • Gave money to states for food, clothing, shelter and created job through work programs (build roads, bridges, etc)

    Social Security Act

  • provided for unemployment and old-age benefits




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France’s Postwar Difficulties

  • The Economy – government and individuals in debt (land in ruins, inflation, cost of Maginot line)

  • International Affairs – Locarno Pact pledged that countries would peacefully settle all future disputes

  • Political Unrest – strikes in various industries; Popular Front came to power, then fell; extremist actions


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Great Britain After WWI

  • Labor Troubles – outdated industry, unemployment (25%), unions wanted increase in wages

  • Ireland – bloody revolt against Great Britain; Irish Republican Army fought for independence


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Eastern Europe

  • Weak economies

  • Conflicts between socialists and conservatives (government controlled economy or command economy vs. free market)

  • New boundaries caused unrest



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The Rise of Fascism in Italy

  • Fascism – dictatorship and totalitarianism, opposed communism and democracy (rigid control through force/censorship)

  • Mussolini’s rise to power – appointed Fascists to all official positions in center government

  • The corporatist state – major economic activities were organized similar to corporations


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The Nazis and Hitler

  • Treaty of Versailles- viewed as humiliating and unfair

  • Nazi Party – extremely nationalistic, anti-Semitic

  • Hitler – planned racial purity, repeal the Treaty of Versailles, created anti-communist hysteria



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Review: Russian Revolution

  • Why was there a revolution in Russia? Who came to power afterward?

  • After Lenin died there was a struggle for power between Trotsky and Stalin. Stalin prevails.


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Write the answer in your notes

  • If you had a choice, would you rather live under a communist controlled country or one led by a fascist dictator. Explain using a specificexample to support your choice.


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Russia Under Lenin

  • New Economic Policy – nationalized industries (government owns them now), collective farms (peasants were asked to join farms together for better production)

    • 1929 – 4% by 1931 – more than 50%

  • Women’s Roles – gave women more rights, seen as equal to men

  • Education was a priority


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The Five-Year Plan

  • Ambitious agricultural, industrial, and social goals to create a modern, industrialized society

  • Caused hardships for Soviet people, were forced to comply


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Stalin’s Dictatorship

  • Government Under Stalin – purge of disloyal party members, extended to general population

  • Foreign Policy – wanted rest of world to accept Soviet Union and tried to spread Communism (Comintern)


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  • How did Stalin rise to power?

    • Gained control of communist party after Lenin’s death

  • Why did the Soviet system of government make the development of a police state possible?

    • Before communism the Czars used secret police and spies to maintain control of the people


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