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Nutritional Needs & Diet Modification

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Nutritional Needs & Diet Modification - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Adonis K. Lomibao, R.N. 12/20/11. Nutritional Needs & Diet Modification. Introduction. Nutrition:process by which the body takes in food for growth and repair and uses it to maintain health. Signs of good nutrition: -shiny hair -clear skin & eyes -well-developed body -an alert expression

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction
  • Nutrition:process by which the body takes in food for growth and repair and uses it to maintain health.
  • Signs of good nutrition:

-shiny hair

-clear skin & eyes

-well-developed body

-an alert expression

-p.427

normal nutrition essential nutrients
Normal Nutrition & Essential Nutrients
  • Digestion:process of breaking down foods into simple substances that can be used by body cells for nourishment
  • Substances are essential nutrients:

-Proteins-carbs-fats-minerals-vitamins-water

  • Supply heat & energy
  • Build & repair body tissue
  • Regulate body functions
protein
Protein
  • The basic material of every body cell
  • Only nutrient that can make new cells & rebuild tissue
  • Made of amino acids
  • Foods:

-meat-poultry-eggs-milk-cheese

  • Complete proteins:contain all the amino acids the body can\'t manufacture
  • Incomplete:DO NOT contain all the essential amino acids
carbs fats
Carbs & Fats
  • Energy foods used to produce heat & energy
  • Excess stored at fat
  • Foods: fruits, vegetables, grains
  • Supply body with fiber or roughage(cellulose) to maintain bowel regularity
  • Fat: comes from plants & animals
  • Ex: Pork,nuts,butter,cheese,egg yolk
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Vitamins regulate body processes:

-build strong teeth & bones

-promote growth

-aid normal body functioning

-strengthen resistance to disease

  • Vitamins A,B-Complex,C,D,E,K
minerals
Minerals
  • Help build body tissues, esp. bone & teeth..also regulate chemistry oof the body fluids
  • Minerals include:

-Calcium

-Iodine

-Copper

-Phosphorus

-Iron

-Potassium

the five food groups
The Five Food Groups
  • Food Guide Pyramid Groups:

-Grains-6oz/Daily

-Vegetables-2 ½ cups/Daily

-Fruits-2 cups/Daily

-Oils-low

-Milk-3 cups/Daily

-Meat & beans-5.5oz/Daily

discretionary calories
Discretionary Calories
  • An extra calorie that can be used on solid fats, added sugars, alcohol, or extra food.
  • Essential calories-the minimum calories required to meet your nutrient needs.
  • It is possible to use more calories than the amount required to meet your nutrient needs
water
Water
  • Necessary for life and all the cellular functions in the body
  • 2-3 Quarts Daily
  • required to replace fluids lost through urine, stool, sweat, and evaporation through the skin
basic facility diets
Basic Facility Diets
  • Four common diets

-Regular/General

-Full liquid

-Clear liquid

-Soft

regular house
Regular/House
  • Normal or full diet based on 5 food groups

Variety

  • Excludes very rich foods
  • Lower caloric count
  • May select from a menu
clear liquid diet
Clear Liquid Diet
  • Temporary b/c inadequate
  • Replaces fluids lost by vomiting or diarrhea
  • Consists of liquids that do not irritate, cause gas formation, or encourage bowel movements
  • Examples:

-fat-free meat broths

-ginger ale,7UP, clear juices

-gelatin

-p.431

full liquid diet
Full Liquid Diet
  • Supplies nourishment and may be used for longer periods of time...but still temporary.
  • Given to patients with:

-Acute infections

-conditions involving digestive tract

  • Examples:

-strained cereal

-strained soups

  • p.432
soft diet
Soft Diet
  • Usually follows the full liquir diet
  • Nourishes body:between-meals feedings can be given to increase calorie count
  • Low-residue,mildly flavored,easy to digest
  • Given to pts with: infection/fevers,difficulty swallowing, conditions affecting digestive tract,on progressive post-op dietary regime
  • Examples on p.432
special diets
Special Diets
  • Religious practices may change diet for some pts.
  • i.e. Jewish:

-shellfish & nonkosher meats prohibited

-foods can\'t be prepared with utensils used in non-kosher foods

-p.432

the diabetic diet
The Diabetic Diet
  • For patients with Diabetes Mellitus
  • Proper diet and administration of insulin
  • Diets aim is to maintain the level of blood sugar WNL
  • Exchange List-method of balancing the diabetic diet based on household measurements, excludes high content sugar, divides food into 6 groups
  • Milk,veg,fruit,bread,meat,fat...
sodium restricted diet
Sodium-Restricted Diet
  • May be ordered for pts. With chronic renal failure & cardiovascular disease
  • Different levels of sodium: Table 26-2
  • Average American 2-6g/day
  • Select low-sodium foods
  • Low in sodium:

-some cereals

-vegetables

-fruits

calorie restricted
Calorie-Restricted
  • 3,500 calories=1 lb.
  • Prescribed for pts. That are overweight
  • Take consideration energy output, gen. Nutritional state, & weight goal
  • Balance between:

-proteins: 20%

-fats: 25-35%

-carbs: 45-65%

low fat low cholesterol diet
Low-Fat/Low-Cholesterol Diet
  • For patients suffering from vascular, heart, liver, or gallbladder disease...or difficulty with fat metabolism
  • Foods baked, roasted, broiled...
  • Fats limited & calories balanced by increasing proteins & carbs.
  • Foods included: p.435
mechanically altered diets
Mechanically Altered Diets
  • Consistency & texture are modified to make food easier to chew & swallow.
  • Mechanical soft: those who have no teeth or with serious dental problems. “consistency of ground beef”
  • Pureed diet: blended with gravy or liquid till its pudding consistency
supplements nourishments
Supplements & Nourishments
  • Ordered by physician or dietician to have a therapeutic value...i.e. High-protein to facilitate healing.
  • Not nutritionally comlete
  • Nourishments are substancial food items given to patients to increase nutrient intake. “between meals”
  • “snacks” prevent or eliminate hunger between meals
  • p.436
calorie counts food intake studies
Calorie Counts & Food intake Studies
  • Food intake is analyzed for nutritional adequacy and number of calories consumed.
  • Info used to plan a diet to meet patient\'s special medical needs.
  • Food documentation for is prepared
  • Food may be weighed or measured
  • Inform staff & visitors
dysphagia
Dysphagia
  • Difficulty swallowing food & liquids
  • May occur in those who have:

-had a stroke

-neuro studies

-dimentia

-p/437

-those who take meds that cause sedation or reduce saliva production

s s dysphagia
S&S Dysphagia
  • Taking a long time before beginning to swallow
  • Swallowing 3-4x per bite of food
  • Lack of gag reflex or weak cough
  • Wet, gurgling voice
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • p.437- inform nurse
dysphagia1
Dysphagia
  • Speech language pathology consult
  • Treated with swallowing exercises \, practice of proper swallowing techniques, alteration of consistency of food & beverages
  • Thickeners may be used

-juice, nectar, honey, pudding (consistency)

fluid balance
Fluid balance
  • Balance between liquid intake & liquid output
  • Intake-2,600-3,000ml/D
  • Edema-excessive fluid retention
  • Dehydration-inadequate fluid intake
  • Output- 2,500ml/D

-urine

-perspiration

-p.440

fluid balance cont
Fluid Balance Cont.
  • Record I&O
  • Push fluids/force fluids-encourage fluid intake
  • Fluid output includes: urine,emesis, drainage.
alternative nutrition
Alternative Nutrition
  • Patients that may be:

-unconscious

-disease of GI tract

-persistent vomiting

-aspiration-risk

  • TPN- IV Nutrition-concentrated nutrients
  • Enteral feedings- tubes inserted into digestive tract.
alternative nutrition cont
Alternative Nutrition Cont.
  • NG Tube feeding
  • Gastrostomy- through abdominal skin into stomach
  • Jejunostomy tube-tip ends in small intestine

-through nose, or surgically inserted

-long term...those who don\'t have stomach or risk for aspiration

  • PEG Tube-Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy-surgically inserted
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