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Distilling and Purification Plants. “Water, water everywhere…”. Objectives. Comprehend the theory and operation of distilling plants including energy transformations that take place Comprehend the different types of distilling plants

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Distilling and Purification Plants

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Distilling and purification plants

Distilling and Purification Plants

“Water, water everywhere…”


Objectives

Objectives

  • Comprehend the theory and operation of distilling plants including energy transformations that take place

  • Comprehend the different types of distilling plants

  • Comprehend the concepts of salinity monitoring and water conservation


Distilling and purification plants

“Water, water everywhere… nor any drop to drink.”

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge

The Ancient Mariner

“Wake up Aquaman!”

- EM2(SS) Barrow

USS Louisville (SSN 724)


Fresh water uses

Fresh Water Uses

  • STEAM PLANT!!!

  • Electronics Cooling

  • Hotel Services

    • Cooking/Drinking

    • Laundry

    • (Showers)

  • Freshwater Washdown


Definitions

DEFINITIONS

  • Distillation

    • Process of boiling SW and then cooling and condensing the resulting vapor to produce good water

  • Evaporation

    • First step in the distillation process. It is the process of boiling SW to separate it into fresh water vapor and brine


Definitions cont

DEFINITIONS (cont.)

  • Brine

    • Water in which the concentration of salt is greater than that of normal SW

  • Vapor

    • Water in the gaseous state

  • Condensation

    • Conversion of vapor into usable fresh water by cooling


Distilling and purification plants

DEFINITIONS (cont.)

  • Distillate

    • The product of condensation (I.e. the fresh water)

  • Salinity

    • The concentration of salt in water (in ppm)

  • Feed

    • SW used as the raw material in the distilling process


Important concepts

Important Concepts

  • Distillation: seawater freshwater

    • Evaporation

    • Condensation

  • Feed (seawater @ 35,000 ppm Cl-)

    • Distillate (<0.1 ppm Cl-)

    • Brine (>35,000 ppm Cl-)

  • Salinity (salt concentration in H20)


Distillation process

Distillation Process


Distilling plant types

Distilling Plant Types

  • Flash-Type

  • Vertical Basket

  • Vapor-Compression

  • Reverse-Osmosis


Flash type

Flash Type

  • Most combatants

  • High capacity (12,000 –50,000 GPD)

  • Distillate (<.065 ppm)

  • 150# Auxiliary Steam

  • Vacuum operation

    • More efficient

    • (-) soluble salts


Flash type1

Flash Type


Vertical basket

Vertical Basket

  • Submarines

  • Similar to Flash type

  • Med. capacity (8,000 - 10,000 GPD)

  • Low Pressure (Auxiliary) Steam


Vertical basket1

Vertical Basket


Vapor compression

Vapor-Compression

  • Ships without STEAM propulsion

  • Diesels and submarines (as backup)

  • Low capacity (4000 GPD)

  • Compresses generated steam using electricity


Vapor compression1

Vapor-Compression


Reverse osmosis

Reverse-Osmosis

  • Distillate is <50 ppm

    • good enough to drink

    • but not for engineering plant feedwater

  • H2O migrates through semi-permeable membrane (salt is blocked)

  • High pressure req’s (400+ psia)

  • Multi-stage units preferred


Reverse osmosis1

Reverse-Osmosis


Salinity monitoring

Salinity Monitoring

  • Salinity cells

    • Strategic placement throughout plant

    • Continuous remote monitoring of fresh water

    • Auto flow shutoff using solenoid valves


Water conservation

Water Conservation

  • Limited resource

  • Standard “Navy shower”

  • Water hours


Questions

Questions?


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