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BIODIVERSITY CP Environmental Science-2010. DEFINITIONS BENEFITS THREATS BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION. What is Biodiversity. Species diversity Genetic biodiversity Ecological and ecosystem diversity. How Many Species. Over 2 million known

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Biodiversity cp environmental science 2010

BIODIVERSITYCP Environmental Science-2010

DEFINITIONS BENEFITS

THREATS

BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION


What is biodiversity

What is Biodiversity

  • Species diversity

  • Genetic biodiversity

  • Ecological and ecosystem diversity


How many species

How Many Species

  • Over 2 million known

  • Numbers may up to 50 million, maybe 30 million insects

  • Inverts 70%of known & may be 90% of existing species

  • Most in tropics


Benefits of biodiversity

Benefits of Biodiversity

  • Food-

    • especially genetic “bank” to improve domestic crops

    • many potentially valuable food plants

  • Drugs and medicine - studying native cultures

  • Ecological benefits

  • Aesthetic and cultural benefits


Natural extinction

Natural Extinction

  • Evolutionary time: most species extinct-99%

  • Through evolution - “genes” may remain from evolutionary predecessors

  • Mass extinction: end of dinosaur age and end or Permian period (over 1/2 of all animals)

  • In “normal times”: perhaps one species per decade in undisturbed ecosystem


Human caused extinction

Human Caused Extinction

  • Much accelerated rate of extinction

  • Hundreds or even thousands of species, subspecies, or varieties to become extinct

  • Estimates are at more than 20,000 species per year, but may be many more thousands of not even identified species


Extinction is forever

Extinction isForever


Figure 22 6 page 563

Figure 22-6Page 563

Passenger pigeon

Dusky seaside sparrow

Great auk

Dodo

Aepyornis

(Madagascar)


Class activity introduction to endangered species what is happening to these animals

Class ActivityIntroduction to Endangered Species - What Is Happening to These Animals?

  • Effects of PA cutting forests in 1800s

  • Persecution of predators - animals extirpated

  • Introduced species

  • Lost or damaged habitats

    • some details on wetlands - what happens to them?

  • What agencies in PA deal with End. Spp?


Class activity introduction classification meanings

Class Activity - IntroductionClassification meanings

  • List and define the different classifications

  • List several examples of each

  • Endangered species in P

    • PA Game Commission

    • PA Fish Commission


Threats to biodiversity habitat loss

Threats to Biodiversity Habitat Loss

  • Number one cause

  • Especially wetlands, coastal

  • Tropical forest – great diversity

  • Includes filling, pollution, even ozone depletion!

  • Pollution-

    • DDT, PCBs,

    • Lead poisons

  • Global Climate Change – N.G.video the polar bear


Threats of biodiversity direct killing and persecution

Threats of Biodiversity Direct Killing and Persecution

  • Commercial Products and Live specimens

    • Furs, hides, horns, pets

  • Predator and pest control

    • 1995: Animal Damage Control Program:

    • $24 M to kill 700,000 birds and animals

  • Hunting and fishing-overharvesting

    • making a renewable resource unstainable

    • American passenger pigeon

    • Great whales

    • Buffalo

    • Many island species


Figure 22 23 page 584

Figure 22-23Page 584

DO NOT POST TO INTERNET


Threats of biodiversity introduced species

Threats of BiodiversityIntroduced Species

  • Exotic species introduction

    • Plants: Purple loosestrife, honeysuckle, multifloral rose

    • Zebra mussels

    • Feral animals - cats and dogs

  • Diseases-American chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease

  • Insects


Figure 22 17 1 page 576

Figure 22-17 (1)Page 576

Purple looselife

European starling

African honeybee

(“Killer bee”)

Nutria

Salt cedar

(Tamarisk)

Marine toad

Water hyacinth

Japanese beetle

Hydrilla

European wild boar

(Feral pig)


Figure 22 17 2 page 576

Figure 22-17 (2)Page 576

Sea lamprey

(attached to lake trout)

Argentina fire ant

Brown tree snake

Eurasian muffle

Common pigeon

(Rock dove)

Formosan termite

Zebra mussel

Asian long-horned

beetle

Asian tiger mosquito

Gypsy moth larvae


Figure 22 16 page 575

Type of Nonnative Organism

Annual Losses and Damages

Figure 22-16Page 575

Crop disease

$23.5 billion

Crop weeds

$23.4 billion

Rats

$19 billion

Feral cats and outdoor pet cats

$17 billion

Crop insects

$14 billion

Livestock diseases

$9 billion

Forest insects and diseases

$4.8 billion

Zebra mussels

$3 billion

Common pigeon

$1.1 billion

Formosan termite

$1.1 billion

Fishes

$1.1 billion

Asian clam

$1.1 billion

Feral pigs

$0.8 billion

Starlings

$0.8 billion

Fire ant

$0.6 billion


Protecting biodiversity

Protecting Biodiversity

  • Hunting and fishing laws

  • Endangered Species Act-1973

    • State laws

  • International laws

    • CITES

    • Ban on whaling

  • Habitat protection- parks and refugees

  • Zoos and botanical preserves

  • Captive breeding and release programs


Endangered species act 1973

Endangered Species Act - 1973

  • Classifications

    • Endangered

    • Threatened

    • Vulnerable

  • Regulates

    • Taking in any form

    • Habitat protection

    • Harassment or interference during breeding


Esa numbers and classification

ESA - Numbers and Classification

  • 1530 endangered & threatened species

  • 500 candidate species

  • Vertebrates: 91%

  • Hundreds of species “warranted but precluded” from protection - just no staff or dollars


Zoos botanical gardens captive breeding

Zoos, Botanical Gardens, Captive Breeding

  • Purposes: preservation and public education - or another expression of human dominance?

  • Exposure of people to wild animals

  • Who do we protect - only the humanly defined beautiful and interesting?


Breed and release

Breed and Release

  • Peregrines

  • California Condor

  • How to reduce genetic inbreeding

  • High Cost


Capture transfer and release

Capture, transfer and release

  • Elk in PA

  • Turkey in PA

  • Wolves in Yellowstone

  • Whopping crane

  • Sea turtles (egg “capture”)


Cites treaty

CITES Treaty

  • International-What is purpose?

  • Need economic sustainability as well as protect endangered species

  • Role of ecotourism


Figure 22 7 3 page 565

Figure 22-7 (3)Page 565

West Virginia

spring salamander

Whooping crane

Knowlton cactus

Giant panda

(China)

Blue whale

Pine barrens

tree frog (male)

Swamp pink

Hawksbill sea turtle

El Segundo blue butterfly

Mountain gorilla

(Africa)


Figure 22 7 1 page 564

Figure 22-7 (1)Page 564

Florida manatee

Northern spotted owl (threatened)

Bannerman's turaco (Africa)

Gray wolf

Florida panther

Devil's hole pupfish

Black-footed ferret

Snow leopard

(Central Asia)

Utah prairie dog

(threatened)

Symphonia

(Madagascar)

California condor

Black lace cactus

Oahu tree snail

Ghost bat

(Australia)

Black rhinoceros

(Africa)


Figure 22 13 1 page 573

Figure 22-13 (1)Page 573

Range 100 years ago

Range today

(about 2,300 left)

  • The Tiger – critically endangered - NG video

Indian Tiger


Figure 22 13 4 page 573

Figure 22-13 (4)Page 573

Former range

Range today

(34,000–54,000 left)

Asian or Indian Elephant


Figure 22 13 3 page 573

Figure 22-13 (3)Page 573

Probable range 1600

Range today

(300,000 left)

African Elephant


Why be concerned

Why Be Concerned?

  • Plants

    • Source of drugs - rosy periwinkle (78)

    • genetic diversity for food crops

  • Loss of ecosystems - cascading effects

    • keystone species - sea otter in California

    • killing predators - lose limiting factors -

      • Elk in Yellowstone, deer in pa

  • Moral, ethical, aesthetic


Figure 22 11 2 page 569

Figure 22-11 (2)Page 569

Foxglove

Digitalis purpurea,

Europe

Digitalis for heart failure


Figure 22 11 3 page 569

Figure 22-11 (3)Page 569

Pacific yew

Taxus brevifolia,

Pacific Northwest

Ovarian cancer


Endangered species in pa class activity

Endangered Species in PAClass Activity

  • Wade Island - Tough Decisions to Protect Endangered Species

    • What two end Class Activity endangered species nest on Wade Island?

    • Describe what is happening with cormorants on the island

      • Discuss at least three problems caused by the cormorant

    • What is going to be done?

    • Do you agree or disagree with this approach?

    • Do we humans have a right to decide what species survives on the island?


Wildlife management textbook 1 15 game commission website class videos

Wildlife Management(textbook 1.15, game commission website, class videos)

  • What are the goals of a wildlife manager?

  • How are wildlife populations studied and assessed?

  • What are the techniques used today and in the past to manage and enhance PA wildlife populations?

    • Hunting

    • Habitat management

    • Endangered species

    • Other

  • What are some PA wildlife “success stories”?

  • What are advantages/disadvantages of hunting in PA?


Preserving nature

Preserving Nature


Vital habitats

Vital Habitats

  • Coral Reef - video


Land use in the united states

Rangeland and pasture 29%

Land Use in the United States

Fig. 23-3 p. 595


Types of us public lands

Types of US Public Lands

  • Multiple-use lands:

    • National Forests

    • BLM

    • National Forest Service in Dept of Agr.

  • Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges - USFWS

  • Restricted-use lands:

    • National Park System- Dept of Interior

    • National Wilderness Preservation System

    • Wilderness Act of 1964 (pg 627)

    • Preservationist philosophy


Us public lands

US Public Lands

Fig. 23-4

p. 596


Us national parks

US National Parks

  • The First: Yellowstone in 1872

  • Yosemite: thanks to John Muir

  • Why a national park - what are the purposes?


Wildlife refuges

Wildlife Refuges

  • Teddy Roosevelt - 1901

  • 511 in the system

  • Hunting not only allowed, but in many have become number one activity


Land use in pa

Land Use In PA

  • Pennsylvania Land Area 28,863,000 acres

  • Forested (Public and Private) 20,078,000 acres

  • State Forest Land 2,100,000 acres

  • State Forest Wild Areas 145,000 acres

  • Protected Natural Areas 79,000 acres

  • Even if we protect all 145,000 acres of state forest wild areas, only a fraction of Pennsylvania - less than 1% - will be left wild and protected for future generations to enjoy.


Types of pa public lands

Types of PA Public Lands

  • PA Wildlands

  • State parks


Tropical rain forests

Tropical Rain Forests

  • Sustainable Logging

  • Why are rainforests being cut and SO WHAT?


Summary

Summary

  • State of the Earth

  • Animals – State of the Earth


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