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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE. CHAPTER 16: Solid and Hazardous Waste. Core Case Study: Electronic Waste . What is electronic waste or e-waste ? Fastest growing category of waste ____% recyclable Contains toxic materials. Fig. 16-1, p. 403. Wasting Resources (1). Solid Waste

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Environmental science

ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

CHAPTER 16:Solid and Hazardous Waste


Core case study electronic waste

Core Case Study: Electronic Waste

  • What is electronic waste or e-waste?

  • Fastest growing category of waste

  • ____% recyclable

  • Contains toxic materials


Environmental science

Fig. 16-1, p. 403


Wasting resources 1

Wasting Resources (1)

  • Solid Waste

  • Industrial solid waste

    __________________

    __________________

    __________________

  • Municipal solid waste

    __________________

    __________________


Wasting resources 2

Wasting Resources (2)

  • Hazardous or toxic waste

    • Threatens human health or environment

    • Poisonous

    • Reactive

    • Corrosive

    • Flammable

    • Developed countries produce ________%


Wasting resources 3

Wasting Resources (3)

  • Solid waste and hazardous waste

    • About ____ unnecessary resource waste

    • Create air & water pollution, land degradation


Environmental science

What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home?

Cleaning

Gardening

Disinfectants

Pesticides

Drain, toilet, and window cleaners

Weed killers

Ant and rodent killers

Spot removers

Flea powders

Septic tank cleaners

Paint Products

Paints, stains, varnishes, and lacquers

Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers

Automotive

Wood preservatives

Gasoline

Artist paints and inks

Used motor oil

General

Antifreeze

Dry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium)

Battery acid

Brake and transmission fluid

Glues and cements

Stepped Art

Fig. 16-2, p. 405


Environmental science

Fig. 16-3, p. 405


Case study solid waste in the united states

Case Study:Solid Waste in the United States

  • Produces ____ of world’s solid waste

  • Mining, agricultural, industrial: _____%

  • Municipal solid waste: _____%

  • High-waste economy

  • Examples?


Sustainable approach to solid waste

sustainable approach to solid waste

  • Waste management

  • Waste reduction

    • reduce it!

  • Integrated waste management

    • then reuse or recycle it

    • & safely dispose of what is left


Environmental science

Raw materials

Processing and

manufacturing

Products

Waste generated by

households and

businesses

Solid and hazardous

wastes generated during

the manufacturing process

Remaining

mixed waste

Hazardous

waste

Food/yard

waste

Plastic

Glass

Metal

Paper

Hazardous waste

management

To manufacturers for reuse or

for recycling

Compost

Landfill

Incinerator

Fertilizer

Fig. 16-4, p. 407


Environmental science

First Priority

Second Priority

Last Priority

Primary Pollution and Waste Prevention

Waste Management

Second Pollution and Waste Prevention

  • Change industrial process to eliminate use of harmful chemicals

  • Use less of a harmful product

  • Reduce packaging and materials in products

  • Make products that last longer and are recyclable, reusable, or easy to repair

  • Treat waste to reduce toxicity

  • Incinerate waste

  • Bury waste in landfills

  • Release waste into environment for dispersal or dilution

  • Reuse

  • Repair

  • Recycle

  • Compost

  • Buy reusable and recyclable products

Stepped Art

Fig. 16-5, p. 407


Environmental science

Fig. 16-6, p. 408


Science focus garbology

Science Focus: Garbology

  • Garbologists

  • Like archaeologists

  • Trash persists for decades


Why is reusing and recycling materials so important

Why Is Reusing and Recycling Materials So Important?

Reusing items:

  • decreases use of matter & energy resources

  • reduces pollution & natural capital degradation

  • recycling does so to a lesser degree


Reuse

Reuse

  • Reuse as a form of waste reduction

  • Salvaging

  • Yard sales, flea markets, secondhand stores, auctions, newspaper ads, Craigslist, ebay

  • Technology: rechargeable batteries

  • Refillable containers and cloth bags


Environmental science

Fig. 16-7, p. 409


Environmental science

5 major types of materials can be recycled

  • ________________________

  • ________________________

  • ________________________

  • ________________________

  • ________________________


Recycling

Recycling

  • Primary (closed-loop) recycling

  • Secondary recycling

  • Pre-consumer (internal) waste

  • Post-consumer (external) waste

  • Feasibility and marketing


Mixed v s separate household recycling

MixedvsSeparate Household Recycling

  • Material recovery facilities (MRF)

    ___________________________

  • Source separation

    • By households and businesses

    • ______________________________________________________________________


Composting

Composting

  • Decomposing bacteria

  • Household composting

  • Organic waste collection facilities

  • Successful large-scale composting


Individuals matter recycling plastics

Individuals Matter: Recycling Plastics

  • _____% plastics recycled

  • MBA Polymers, Inc – commercial recycling process

    • Mike Biddle and Trip Allen, co-founders

  • Pellets cheaper than virgin plastics

  • More environmentally friendly


Environmental science

Trade-Offs

Recycling

Advantages

Disadvantages

Reduces air and water

pollution

Saves energy

Reduces mineral demand

Reduces greenhouse

gas emissions

Reduces solid waste

production and disposal

Helps protect biodiversity

Can save landfill space

Important part of economy

Can cost more than

burying in areas with

ample landfill space

May lose money for items such as glass and some plastics

Reduces profits for landfill and incinerator owners

Source separation is

inconvenient for some

people

Fig. 16-8, p. 411


Science focus bioplastics

Science Focus: Bioplastics

  • Most plastics are organic polymers produced from petrochemicals

  • Bioplastics made from plant materials

  • Biodegradable

    • Composting


Encouraging reuse recycling

Encouraging Reuse & Recycling

  • Market prices must reflect true costs

  • Even economic playing field:

    _____________________________

  • Stabilize prices for recycled materials

  • _______________________________

  • ______________________________


Environmental science

Electricity

Smokestack

Turbine

Steam

Crane

Electrostatic

precipitator

Generator

Wet

scrubber

Furnace

Boiler

Water

added

Waste

pit

Dirty

water

Bottom

ash

Conveyor

Fly ash

Ash for treatment,

disposal in landfill, or

use as landfill cover

Fig. 16-9, p. 413


Environmental science

Trade-Offs

Incineration

Disadvantages

Advantages

Expensive to build

Costs more than

short-distance hauling to landfills

Difficult to site because

of citizen opposition

Some air pollution and

CO2 emissions

Older or poorly managed facilities can release large amounts

of air pollution

Output approach that

encourages waste

production

Can compete with

recycling for burnable

materials such as

newspaper

Reduces trash

volume

Less need for

landfills

Low water

pollution

Concentrates

hazardous

substances into

ash for burial

Sale of energy

reduces cost

Modern controls

reduce air

pollution

Some facilities

recover and sell

metals

Fig. 16-10, p. 414


Burying solid wastes

Burying Solid Wastes

  • Open dumps

  • Sanitary landfills

  • Leachates


Environmental science

When landfill is full,

layers of soil and clay

seal in trash

Topsoil

Sand

Methane storage

and compressor

building

Clay

Electricity

generator

building

Leachate

treatment system

Garbage

Probes to

detect

methane

leaks

Methane gas

recovery well

Pipes collect explosive

methane for use as fuel

to generate electricity

Leachate

storage

tank

Compacted

solid waste

Groundwater

monitoring

well

Leachate

pipes

Garbage

Leachate pumped

up to storage tank

for safe disposal

Sand

Synthetic liner

Leachate

monitoring

well

Groundwater

Sand

Clay and plastic lining

to prevent leaks; pipes

collect leachate from

bottom of landfill

Clay

Subsoil

Fig. 16-11, p. 414


Environmental science

Trade-Offs

Sanitary Landfills

Advantages

Disadvantages

No open burning

Noise and traffic

Little odor

Dust

Air pollution from toxic gases

and trucks

Low groundwater pollution

if sited properly

Can be built quickly

Releases greenhouse gases

(methane and CO2) unless

they are collected

Low operating costs

Can handle large amounts

of waste

Slow decomposition of wastes

Output approach that

encourages waste production

Filled land can be used for

other purposes

Eventually leaks and can

contaminate groundwater

No shortage of landfill space

in many areas

Fig. 16-12, p. 415


Environmental science

Produce Less Hazardous Waste

Convert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous Substances

Put in

Perpetual Storage

  • Change industrial processes to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste production

  • Recycle and reuse hazardous waste

  • Natural decomposition

  • Incineration

  • Thermal treatment

  • Chemical, physical, and biological treatment

  • Dilution in air or water

  • Landfill

  • Underground injection wells

  • Surface impoundments

  • Underground salt formations

Integrated hazardous waste management

Stepped Art

Fig. 16-13, p. 415


Detoxifying hazardous waste

Detoxifying Hazardous Waste

  • Bioremediation

  • Phytoremediation

  • Incineration

  • Plasma arc torch


Storing hazardous waste

Storing Hazardous Waste

  • Deep-well disposal

    __________________________________________

  • Surface impoundments

    • ______ % in U.S. have _______________________

    • ______ % may threaten ______________________

  • Secure landfills


Environmental science

Fig. 16-14, p. 417


Environmental science

Trade-Offs

Surface Impoundments

Advantages

Disadvantages

Groundwater

contamination from

leaking liners (or no

lining)

Low construction

costs

Low operating

costs

Air pollution from

volatile organic

compounds

Overflow from

flooding

Can be built

quickly

Wastes can often

be retrieved if

necessary

Disruption and leakage from earthquakes

Can store wastes

indefinitely with

secure double

liners

Output approach that

encourages waste

production

Fig. 16-15, p. 417


Environmental science

Bulk

waste

Gas

vent

Topsoil

Plastic cover

Earth

Impervious

clay cap

Clay

cap

Sand

impervious

clay

Water

table

Earth

Leak

detection

system

Groundwater

Plastic

double

liner

Reactive

wastes

in drums

Groundwater

monitoring

well

Double leachate

collection system

Fig. 16-16, p. 418


Environmental science

Fig. 16-17, p. 418


Hazardous waste regulation in usa

Hazardous Waste Regulation in USA

  • Resource Conservation & Recovery Act

    • EPA administers

    • Cradle to grave

  • Laws regulate only ____%of hazardous wastes


Environmental science

Superfund

  • 1980 - created

  • Cleans hazardous waste sites

  • Nov. 2008: 1,255 sites on list; 322 sites cleaned

  • Now broke

  • Who pays for clean up?


Environmental science

Brownfields

  • Turning toxic areas into parks and nature reserves


Dealing with lead pb poisoning

Dealing with Lead (Pb) Poisoning

  • Neurotoxin

  • Especially harmful to children

    • 1976-2004: # children with unsafe blood Pb levels dropped from

      _____% to _____%

    • Gov’t banned ________________________

      ____________________________________

  • _____ countries still use leaded gasoline


Environmental science

Solutions

Lead Poisoning

Prevention

Control

Replace lead pipes

and plumbing fixtures containing lead solder

Phase out

leaded gasoline

worldwide

Phase out waste

incineration

Ban use of lead

solder

Ban use of lead

in computer and

TV monitors

Ban lead glazing

for ceramicware

used to serve

food

Test blood for

lead by age 1

Remove leaded paint and lead dust from older houses and apartments

Sharply reduce lead emissions from incinerators

Remove lead from TV sets and computer

monitors before

incineration or land disposal

Test for lead in existing ceramic-ware used

to serve food

Ban candles

withlead cores

Test existing candles for lead

Wash fresh fruits and vegetables

Fig. 16-18, p. 419


Achieving a low waste society

Achieving a Low-Waste Society

  • Grassroots action

  • Environmental justice

  • International treaties

    • Basel Convention

    • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)


Five principles for achieving a low waste society

Five Principles for Achieving a Low-Waste Society

  • Everything is connected

  • There is no “away” for wastes

  • Polluters & producers must pay for wastes

  • Different categories of hazardous waste and recyclable waste should not be mixed

  • Reuse, recycle, & compost solid wastes


Three big ideas from this chapter 1

Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #1

order of priorities for dealing with solid waste

should be:


Three big ideas from this chapter 2

Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #2

Order of priorities for dealing with

hazardous waste should be:


Three big ideas from this chapter 3

Three Big Ideas from This Chapter: #3

We need to view solid wastes as

wasted resources

and hazardous wastes as

materials that we should not be

producing in the first place.


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