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13e ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 12: Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Core Case Study: The Real Cost of Gold Two wedding rings = 6 tons of mining waste Gold mining pollutes air and water Toxic cyanide used to mine gold Gold mining harms wildlife Fig. 12-1, p. 273

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Environmental science l.jpg

13e

ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

CHAPTER 12:Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral


Core case study the real cost of gold l.jpg

Core Case Study: The Real Cost of Gold

  • Two wedding rings = 6 tons of mining waste

  • Gold mining pollutes air and water

  • Toxic cyanide used to mine gold

  • Gold mining harms wildlife


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Fig. 12-1, p. 273


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12-1 What Are the Earth’s Major Geological Processes and Hazards?

  • Concept 12-1 Dynamic processes move matter within the earth and on its surface and can cause volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and earthquakes.


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The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet

  • What is geology?

  • Earth’s internal structure

    • Core

    • Mantle

    • Asthenosphere

    • Crust

    • Lithosphere


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Plate Tectonics

  • Tectonic plates

  • Divergent plate boundaries

  • Convergent boundaries

  • Transform fault boundaries


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Folded

mountain belt

Volcanoes

Oceanic

ridge

Trench

Abyssal

floor

Abyssal

floor

Craton

Abyssal hills

Abyssal plain

Oceanic crust

(lithosphere)

Abyssal plain

Continental

shelf

Continental

slope

Continental

rise

Continental crust

(lithosphere)

Mantle (lithosphere)

Mantle (lithosphere)

Mantle (asthenosphere)

Fig. 12-2, p. 275


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Spreading

center

Ocean

trench

Oceanic tectonic plate

Oceanic tectonic plate

Collision between two continents

Plate movement

Plate movement

Subduction zone

Tectonic plate

Oceanic crust

Oceanic crust

Continental

crust

Continental

crust

Cold dense

material falls

back through

mantle

Material cools

as it reaches

the outer mantle

Hot material

rising

through

the mantle

Mantle

convection

cell

Mantle

Two plates move

towards each other.

One is subducted

back into the mantle

on a falling convection

current.

Hot outer

core

Inner

core

Fig. 12-3, p. 275


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Fig. 12-4, p. 276


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Fig. 12-5, p. 277


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Volcanoes

  • Magma

  • Lava

  • Eruptions

    • Lava rock

    • Hot ash

    • Liquid lava

    • Gases


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Extinct volcanoes

Eruption cloud

Ash

Acid rain

Ash flow

Lava flow

Mud flow

Central vent

Landslide

Magma conduit

Magma reservoir

Solid lithosphere

Upwelling

magma

Partially molten asthenosphere

Fig. 12-6, p. 277


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Earthquakes

  • Stressed rocks shift or break

  • Seismic waves

  • Seismographs

  • Richter scale to measure amplitude

  • Tsunami


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Liquefaction of recent

sediments causes

buildings to sink

Two adjoining plates

move laterally along

the fault line

Earth movements

cause flooding in

low-lying areas

Landslides

may occur on

hilly ground

Shock

waves

Focus

Epicenter

Fig. 12-7, p. 278


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Fig. 12-8, p. 279


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Fig. 12-9, p. 279


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Waves head inland

causing damage in

their path.

Earthquake in seafloor swiftly

pushes water upwards, and

starts a series of waves

Waves move rapidly in

deep ocean reaching

speeds of up to 890

kilometers per hour.

As the waves near land they

slow to about 45 kilometers per

hour but are squeezed upwards

and increased in height.

Undersea thrust fault

Upward wave

Bangladesh

India

Burma

Thailand

Malaysia

Sri Lanka

Earthquake

Sumatra

Indonesia

December 26, 2004, tsunami

Fig. 12-10, p. 280


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12-2 How Are Earth’s Rocks Recycled?

  • Concept 12-2 The three major types of rock found in the earth’s crust are recycled very slowly by physical and chemical processes.


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Rocks and Minerals

  • Minerals

  • Rock

    • Igneous

    • Sedimentary

    • Metamorphic

  • Rock cycle


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Sedimentary Rocks

  • Sediments

    • Tiny particles of eroded rocks

    • Dead plant and animal remains

  • Transported by water, wind, or gravity

  • Pressure converts into rock

    • Sandstone

    • Shale

    • Coal – some types


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Igneous Rocks

  • Forms from magma

  • Can cool beneath earth’s surface

    • Granite

  • Can cool above earth’s surface

    • Lava rocks

  • Most of earth’s crust


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Metamorphic Rocks

  • From preexisting rocks

    • Pressure

    • Heat

    • Chemically active fluids

  • Slate from shale

  • Marble from limestone


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Erosion

Transportation

Weathering

Deposition

Igneous rock

Granite, pumice,

basalt

Sedimentary rock

Sandstone, limestone

Heat, pressure

Cooling

Heat, pressure,

stress

Magma

(molten rock)

Melting

Metamorphic rock

Slate, marble,

gneiss, quartzite

Fig. 12-12, p. 282


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12-3 What Are Mineral Resources and What Are the Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Concept 12-3 Some minerals in the earth’s crust can be made into useful products, but extracting and using these resources can disturb the land, erode soils, produce large amounts of solid waste, and pollute the air, water, and soil.


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Mine, use, throw away;

no new discoveries;

rising prices

A

Recycle; increase reserves

by improved mining

technology, higher prices,

and new discoveries

B

Recycle, reuse, reduce

consumption; increase

reserves by improved

mining technology,

higher prices, and

new discoveries

Production

C

Present

Depletion

time A

Depletion

time B

Depletion

time C

Time

Fig. 12-13, p. 272


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Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (1)

  • Minerals

  • Mineral resources

    • Fossil fuels

    • Metallic

    • Nonmetallic

  • Reserves


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Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (2)

  • Ore

    • High-grade ore

    • Low-grade ore

  • Examples of mineral resources

    • Aluminum

    • Iron – used for steel

    • Copper

    • Gold

    • Sand and gravel


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Conversion

to product

Surface

mining

Melting

metal

Metal ore

Separation

of ore from

gangue

Discarding

of product

Smelting

Recycling

Stepped Art

Fig. 12-13, p. 283


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Fig. 12-14, p. 284


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Extracting Mineral Deposits (1)

  • Surface mining

  • Overburden

  • Spoils

  • Open-pit mining


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Extracting Mineral Deposits (2)

  • Strip mining

  • Area strip mining

  • Contour strip mining

  • Mountaintop removal

  • Subsurface mining


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Fig. 12-15, p. 284


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Undisturbed land

Overburden

Highwall

Coal seam

Overburden

Pit

Bench

Coal seam

Spoil banks

Fig. 12-16, p. 285


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Harmful Environmental Effects of Mining

  • Disruption of land surface

  • Damage to forests and watersheds

  • Biodiversity harmed

  • Subsidence

  • Toxic-laced mining wastes

  • Acid mine drainage


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Fig. 12-17, p. 285


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Fig. 12-18, p. 286


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Fig. 12-18, p. 286


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Harmful Environmental Effects of Removing Metals from Ores

  • Ore mineral – desired metal

  • Gangue – waste material

  • Smelting

    • Air pollution

    • Water pollution

    • Acidified nearby soils

    • Liquid and solid hazardous wastes


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12-4 How Long Will Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Last?

  • Concept 12-4 Raising the price of a scarce mineral resource can lead to an increase in its supply, but there are environmental limits to this effect.


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Uneven Distribution of Mineral Resources

  • Abundant minerals

  • Scarce minerals

  • Exporters and importers

  • Strategic metal resources

    • Economic and military strength

    • U.S. dependency on importing four critical minerals


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Supplies of Mineral Resources

  • Available supply and use

  • Economic depletion

  • Five choices after depletion

    • Recycle or reuse

    • Waste less

    • Use less

    • Find a substitute

    • Do without


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Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable Minerals

  • Supply and demand affect price

  • Not a free market in developed countries

    • Subsides, taxes, regulations, import tariffs

  • Prices of minerals don’t reflect their true costs

  • Developing new mines is expensive and economically risky


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Science Focus: Nanotechnology

  • 100 nanometers or less

    • 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter

  • Widespread applications

  • Potential risks

  • Need for guidelines and regulations

  • Future applications


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Case Study: U.S. General Mining Law of 1872

  • Design: Encourage exploration and mining

  • Mining claim can give legal ownership of land

  • Abused: land used for other purposes

  • Low royalties to federal government

  • Leave toxic wastes behind

  • $32-72 billion est. to clean up abandoned mines


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Fig. 12-19, p. 289


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Mining Lower-grade Ores

  • Improved equipment and technologies

  • Limiting factors

    • Cost

    • Supplies of freshwater

    • Environmental impacts

  • Biomining

    • In-situ mining

    • Slow


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Ocean Mining

  • Minerals from seawater

  • Hydrothermal deposits

  • Manganese-rich nodules

  • High costs

  • Ownership issues

  • Environmental issues


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12-5 How Can We Use Mineral Resources More Sustainably?

  • Concept 12-5 We can try to find substitutes for scarce resources, reduce resource waste, and recycle and reuse minerals.


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Finding Substitutes for Scarce Mineral Resources

  • Materials revolution

    • Ceramics

    • Plastics

    • Fiber-optic glass cables

  • Limitations

  • Recycle and reuse

    • Less environmental impact


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Using Nonrenewable Resources More Sustainably

  • Decrease use and waste

  • 3M Company

    • Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program

  • Economic and environmental benefits of cleaner production


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Fig. 12-20, p. 291


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Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems (1)

  • Mimic nature to deal with wastes – biomimicry

  • Waste outputs become resource inputs

  • Recycle and reuse

  • Resource exchange webs


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Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems (2)

  • Reclaiming brownfields

  • Industrial ecology

  • Ecoindustrial revolution


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Local farmers

Sludge

Pharmaceutical plant

Greenhouses

Sludge

Waste

heat

Waste

heat

Waste

heat

Waste heat

Fish farming

Oil refinery

Surplus

natural gas

Electric power plant

Fly ash

Surplus

sulfur

Waste

calcium

sulfate

Surplus

natural gas

Cement manufacturer

Waste

heat

Sulfuric acid producer

Wallboard factory

Area homes

Stepped Art

Fig. 12-21, p. 292


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Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #1

Dynamic forces that move matter within the earth and on its surface recycle the earth’s rocks, form deposits of mineral resources, and cause volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis.


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Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #2

The available supply of a mineral resource depends on how much of it is in the earth’s crust, how fast we use it, mining technology, market prices, and the harmful environmental effects of removing and using it.


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Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #3

We can use mineral resources more sustainably by trying to find substitutes for scarce resources, reducing resource waste, and reusing and recycling nonrenewable minerals.


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