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13e ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 12: Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Core Case Study: The Real Cost of Gold Two wedding rings = 6 tons of mining waste Gold mining pollutes air and water Toxic cyanide used to mine gold Gold mining harms wildlife Fig. 12-1, p. 273

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Environmental science l.jpg

13e

ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

CHAPTER 12:Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral


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Core Case Study: The Real Cost of Gold

  • Two wedding rings = 6 tons of mining waste

  • Gold mining pollutes air and water

  • Toxic cyanide used to mine gold

  • Gold mining harms wildlife



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12-1 What Are the Earth’s Major Geological Processes and Hazards?

  • Concept 12-1 Dynamic processes move matter within the earth and on its surface and can cause volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and earthquakes.


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The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet Hazards?

  • What is geology?

  • Earth’s internal structure

    • Core

    • Mantle

    • Asthenosphere

    • Crust

    • Lithosphere


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Plate Tectonics Hazards?

  • Tectonic plates

  • Divergent plate boundaries

  • Convergent boundaries

  • Transform fault boundaries


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Folded Hazards?

mountain belt

Volcanoes

Oceanic

ridge

Trench

Abyssal

floor

Abyssal

floor

Craton

Abyssal hills

Abyssal plain

Oceanic crust

(lithosphere)

Abyssal plain

Continental

shelf

Continental

slope

Continental

rise

Continental crust

(lithosphere)

Mantle (lithosphere)

Mantle (lithosphere)

Mantle (asthenosphere)

Fig. 12-2, p. 275


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Spreading Hazards?

center

Ocean

trench

Oceanic tectonic plate

Oceanic tectonic plate

Collision between two continents

Plate movement

Plate movement

Subduction zone

Tectonic plate

Oceanic crust

Oceanic crust

Continental

crust

Continental

crust

Cold dense

material falls

back through

mantle

Material cools

as it reaches

the outer mantle

Hot material

rising

through

the mantle

Mantle

convection

cell

Mantle

Two plates move

towards each other.

One is subducted

back into the mantle

on a falling convection

current.

Hot outer

core

Inner

core

Fig. 12-3, p. 275




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Volcanoes Hazards?

  • Magma

  • Lava

  • Eruptions

    • Lava rock

    • Hot ash

    • Liquid lava

    • Gases


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Extinct volcanoes Hazards?

Eruption cloud

Ash

Acid rain

Ash flow

Lava flow

Mud flow

Central vent

Landslide

Magma conduit

Magma reservoir

Solid lithosphere

Upwelling

magma

Partially molten asthenosphere

Fig. 12-6, p. 277


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Earthquakes Hazards?

  • Stressed rocks shift or break

  • Seismic waves

  • Seismographs

  • Richter scale to measure amplitude

  • Tsunami


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Liquefaction of recent Hazards?

sediments causes

buildings to sink

Two adjoining plates

move laterally along

the fault line

Earth movements

cause flooding in

low-lying areas

Landslides

may occur on

hilly ground

Shock

waves

Focus

Epicenter

Fig. 12-7, p. 278




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Waves head inland Hazards?

causing damage in

their path.

Earthquake in seafloor swiftly

pushes water upwards, and

starts a series of waves

Waves move rapidly in

deep ocean reaching

speeds of up to 890

kilometers per hour.

As the waves near land they

slow to about 45 kilometers per

hour but are squeezed upwards

and increased in height.

Undersea thrust fault

Upward wave

Bangladesh

India

Burma

Thailand

Malaysia

Sri Lanka

Earthquake

Sumatra

Indonesia

December 26, 2004, tsunami

Fig. 12-10, p. 280


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12-2 How Are Earth’s Rocks Recycled? Hazards?

  • Concept 12-2 The three major types of rock found in the earth’s crust are recycled very slowly by physical and chemical processes.


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Rocks and Minerals Hazards?

  • Minerals

  • Rock

    • Igneous

    • Sedimentary

    • Metamorphic

  • Rock cycle


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Sedimentary Rocks Hazards?

  • Sediments

    • Tiny particles of eroded rocks

    • Dead plant and animal remains

  • Transported by water, wind, or gravity

  • Pressure converts into rock

    • Sandstone

    • Shale

    • Coal – some types


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Igneous Rocks Hazards?

  • Forms from magma

  • Can cool beneath earth’s surface

    • Granite

  • Can cool above earth’s surface

    • Lava rocks

  • Most of earth’s crust


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Metamorphic Rocks Hazards?

  • From preexisting rocks

    • Pressure

    • Heat

    • Chemically active fluids

  • Slate from shale

  • Marble from limestone


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Erosion Hazards?

Transportation

Weathering

Deposition

Igneous rock

Granite, pumice,

basalt

Sedimentary rock

Sandstone, limestone

Heat, pressure

Cooling

Heat, pressure,

stress

Magma

(molten rock)

Melting

Metamorphic rock

Slate, marble,

gneiss, quartzite

Fig. 12-12, p. 282


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12-3 What Are Mineral Resources and What Are the Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Concept 12-3 Some minerals in the earth’s crust can be made into useful products, but extracting and using these resources can disturb the land, erode soils, produce large amounts of solid waste, and pollute the air, water, and soil.


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Mine, use, throw away; Environmental Effects of Using Them?

no new discoveries;

rising prices

A

Recycle; increase reserves

by improved mining

technology, higher prices,

and new discoveries

B

Recycle, reuse, reduce

consumption; increase

reserves by improved

mining technology,

higher prices, and

new discoveries

Production

C

Present

Depletion

time A

Depletion

time B

Depletion

time C

Time

Fig. 12-13, p. 272


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Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (1) Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Minerals

  • Mineral resources

    • Fossil fuels

    • Metallic

    • Nonmetallic

  • Reserves


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Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (2) Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Ore

    • High-grade ore

    • Low-grade ore

  • Examples of mineral resources

    • Aluminum

    • Iron – used for steel

    • Copper

    • Gold

    • Sand and gravel


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Conversion Environmental Effects of Using Them?

to product

Surface

mining

Melting

metal

Metal ore

Separation

of ore from

gangue

Discarding

of product

Smelting

Recycling

Stepped Art

Fig. 12-13, p. 283


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Fig. 12-14, p. 284 Environmental Effects of Using Them?


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Extracting Mineral Deposits (1) Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Surface mining

  • Overburden

  • Spoils

  • Open-pit mining


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Extracting Mineral Deposits (2) Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Strip mining

  • Area strip mining

  • Contour strip mining

  • Mountaintop removal

  • Subsurface mining


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Fig. 12-15, p. 284 Environmental Effects of Using Them?


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Undisturbed land Environmental Effects of Using Them?

Overburden

Highwall

Coal seam

Overburden

Pit

Bench

Coal seam

Spoil banks

Fig. 12-16, p. 285


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Harmful Environmental Effects of Mining Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Disruption of land surface

  • Damage to forests and watersheds

  • Biodiversity harmed

  • Subsidence

  • Toxic-laced mining wastes

  • Acid mine drainage


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Fig. 12-17, p. 285 Environmental Effects of Using Them?


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Fig. 12-18, p. 286 Environmental Effects of Using Them?


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Fig. 12-18, p. 286 Environmental Effects of Using Them?


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Harmful Environmental Effects of Removing Metals from Ores Environmental Effects of Using Them?

  • Ore mineral – desired metal

  • Gangue – waste material

  • Smelting

    • Air pollution

    • Water pollution

    • Acidified nearby soils

    • Liquid and solid hazardous wastes


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12-4 How Long Will Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Last?

  • Concept 12-4 Raising the price of a scarce mineral resource can lead to an increase in its supply, but there are environmental limits to this effect.


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Uneven Distribution of Mineral Resources Resources Last?

  • Abundant minerals

  • Scarce minerals

  • Exporters and importers

  • Strategic metal resources

    • Economic and military strength

    • U.S. dependency on importing four critical minerals


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Supplies of Mineral Resources Resources Last?

  • Available supply and use

  • Economic depletion

  • Five choices after depletion

    • Recycle or reuse

    • Waste less

    • Use less

    • Find a substitute

    • Do without


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Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable Minerals Resources Last?

  • Supply and demand affect price

  • Not a free market in developed countries

    • Subsides, taxes, regulations, import tariffs

  • Prices of minerals don’t reflect their true costs

  • Developing new mines is expensive and economically risky


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Science Focus: Nanotechnology Resources Last?

  • 100 nanometers or less

    • 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter

  • Widespread applications

  • Potential risks

  • Need for guidelines and regulations

  • Future applications


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Case Study: U.S. General Mining Law of 1872 Resources Last?

  • Design: Encourage exploration and mining

  • Mining claim can give legal ownership of land

  • Abused: land used for other purposes

  • Low royalties to federal government

  • Leave toxic wastes behind

  • $32-72 billion est. to clean up abandoned mines


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Fig. 12-19, p. 289 Resources Last?


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Mining Lower-grade Ores Resources Last?

  • Improved equipment and technologies

  • Limiting factors

    • Cost

    • Supplies of freshwater

    • Environmental impacts

  • Biomining

    • In-situ mining

    • Slow


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Ocean Mining Resources Last?

  • Minerals from seawater

  • Hydrothermal deposits

  • Manganese-rich nodules

  • High costs

  • Ownership issues

  • Environmental issues


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12-5 How Can We Use Mineral Resources More Sustainably? Resources Last?

  • Concept 12-5 We can try to find substitutes for scarce resources, reduce resource waste, and recycle and reuse minerals.


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Finding Substitutes for Scarce Mineral Resources Resources Last?

  • Materials revolution

    • Ceramics

    • Plastics

    • Fiber-optic glass cables

  • Limitations

  • Recycle and reuse

    • Less environmental impact


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Using Nonrenewable Resources More Sustainably Resources Last?

  • Decrease use and waste

  • 3M Company

    • Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program

  • Economic and environmental benefits of cleaner production


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Fig. 12-20, p. 291 Resources Last?


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Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems (1) Resources Last?

  • Mimic nature to deal with wastes – biomimicry

  • Waste outputs become resource inputs

  • Recycle and reuse

  • Resource exchange webs


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Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems (2) Resources Last?

  • Reclaiming brownfields

  • Industrial ecology

  • Ecoindustrial revolution


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Local farmers Resources Last?

Sludge

Pharmaceutical plant

Greenhouses

Sludge

Waste

heat

Waste

heat

Waste

heat

Waste heat

Fish farming

Oil refinery

Surplus

natural gas

Electric power plant

Fly ash

Surplus

sulfur

Waste

calcium

sulfate

Surplus

natural gas

Cement manufacturer

Waste

heat

Sulfuric acid producer

Wallboard factory

Area homes

Stepped Art

Fig. 12-21, p. 292


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Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #1 Resources Last?

Dynamic forces that move matter within the earth and on its surface recycle the earth’s rocks, form deposits of mineral resources, and cause volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis.


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Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #2 Resources Last?

The available supply of a mineral resource depends on how much of it is in the earth’s crust, how fast we use it, mining technology, market prices, and the harmful environmental effects of removing and using it.


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Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #3 Resources Last?

We can use mineral resources more sustainably by trying to find substitutes for scarce resources, reducing resource waste, and reusing and recycling nonrenewable minerals.


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