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Introduction to Gender. Gender a Social Construct. All academic disciplines as they now exist, whether sociology, psychology, astronomy, physics, theology or chemistry, have been developed largely by men.

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Gender a social construct
Gender a Social Construct

  • All academic disciplines as they now exist, whether sociology, psychology, astronomy, physics, theology or chemistry, have been developed largely by men.



A vindication of the rights of woman 1792
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman who earn most of the money, and who are generally consider the (1792),

  • In 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft, wrote a book entitled, Vindication of the Rights of Women in which she showed how women have been historically influential in all of the areas of above. The mainstream should be deemed malestream.


Women sidelined
Women sidelined who earn most of the money, and who are generally consider the

  • Women have been sidelined in history…Historical sociology questions great man history, Sociology pretends to be about people when in fact it is about men.


1987 un report
1987 UN Report who earn most of the money, and who are generally consider the

  • A 1987 United Nations report claimed, “women constitute half of the world’s population, perform nearly 2/3s of it work hours, receive one tenth of its income, and own less than one-hundredth of its property.



Objectification reification
Objectification, reification evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….…..

  • Go to a club, what do you witness sex role stereotypical behaviour….men flashing their wallets, women selling their sexuality. Objectification, reification…..


Gender concepts defined
Gender Concepts Defined evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….:

  • In order to fully understand how society and biology are combined in a social order it is important to define concepts:


Sex- evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • The biological aspects of an individual, differences between males and females by chromosomal, anatomical, reproductive, hormonal characteristics.


Sex status
Sex Status evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • -Sex status is biologically determined but socially constructed. All human societies make distinctions based on inborn (ascribed) characteristics of sex, the physiological distinctions based on biology and reproductive anatomy that distinguishes male from female.


Gender
Gender evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….-

  • Gender is a status designation derived from the physiological aspects link to males and females physiological aspects link to males and females to allow individuals to function within particular social contexts.


Gender1
Gender evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….-

  • At the societal level, gender differentiation is critical in understanding the differential distributions of

    • . roles

    • . tasks,

    • . resources,

    • . privileges and disadvantages bestowed upon males and females.


Biological sex
Biological Sex evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Sex is made up of several components. In fact, some babies (2-3%) each year are born with ambiguous external genitalia. These babies receive a sexual assignment as one of the two sexes and if required, surgical intervention is provided.


Sex assignment
Sex Assignment- evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Sex Assignment- The categorization into either male or female seems like an irrefutable biological fact. However, How do we know if these babies are male or female???? One’s biological sex is in fact multidimensional….


Several sex components
Several sex components evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • There are several components which may comprise BIOLOGICAL sex:

    • . chromosomal sex,

    • . gondola sex (sexual production organ),

    • . internal sex organs,

    • . external genitalia.


Video gender tango video 4322
Video: Gender Tango evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….VIDEO 4322

  • Anthropological Evidence:

  • Three Contexts.. Papua New Guinea

  • A. Sambians-war, patriarchy

  • B. Trobrians-peace, matriarchy

  • C. Mid West Plains Indian-Berdache


Gender a continuum
Gender: A Continuum? evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Transsexuals are individuals who have the genotype of one sex but are convinced they are in the wrong body, in other words, they are really the opposite sex. Transsexuals do not see themselves as homosexual. They feel trapped by their exterior.


Transsexual operations
Transsexual operations evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Sex change surgery to effect reassignment is sought out by many to this crisis. Transsexual operations tend to flow more male to female than female to male….(Perhaps this might suggest something about our culture)


Sexual reassignment
Sexual reassignment evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • It has been argued that the dramatic choice of sexual reassignment is the product of societal intolerance. In societies where notions of masculine and feminine are more flexibly defined, such procedures might seem unnecessary. For example, Australia with its rigid gender role exceptions has a much higher incidence of sex reassignment surgery than Sweden.


Gender a societal construction
Gender a Societal Construction evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • In societies where notions of masculine and feminine are more flexibly defined, such procedures might seem unnecessary. For example, Sambians of New Guinea with its rigid gender role exceptions has a much higher incidence of sex reassignment surgery than Sweden.


Transsexuals evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls…. are individuals who have the genotype of one sex but are convinced they are in the wrong body, in other words, they are really the opposite sex. Transsexuals do not see themselves as homosexual. They feel trapped by their exterior. Sex change surgery to effect reassignment is sought out by many to this crisis. Transsexual operations tend to flow more male to female than female to male….(Perhaps this might suggest something about our culture) It has been argued that the dramatic choice of sexual reassignment is the product of societal intolerance. In societies where notions of masculine and feminine are more flexibly defined, such procedures might seem unnecessary. For example, Australia with its rigid gender role exceptions has a much higher incidence of sex reassignment surgery than Sweden.


Two polar theoretical explanations of gender
Two polar theoretical explanations of Gender: evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • There are two explanations of sexual orientation: Essentialist who believe that biological disposition or the core self develops in early life.


Social constructionist
Social constructionist evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • The social constructionist who believes that heterosexuality and homosexuality are matters of mere definition that vary across time and place


The institution of the family patriarchy and gender
The Institution of the Family-Patriarchy and Gender evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Structural Approach-essentialist

  • Social Exchange Theory-essentialist

  • Social Conflict Theory-constructionist

  • Symbolic Interactionist-constructionist


Sexual orientation as a social construct
Sexual Orientation as a Social Construct evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Prior to groundbreaking research of Alfred Kinsey, the research literature equated sexual orientation with the essence of that person...

  • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male 1948,

  • Sexual Behavior in the Human Female 1953.


Biology vs construction
Biology vs. Construction evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Kinsey criticized the rigid dichotomization of homosexual vs. heterosexual. He proposed that sexual behavior existed on a continuum.

  • Categories of sexuality are not predetermined or universal.


Feminist approaches to the study of gender inequality
Feminist Approaches to the Study of Gender Inequality evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

1.  Liberal Feminism -seeks to make incremental changes to legislation and piecemeal changes in attitudes. Aim is working towards gender equality.An example is Margrit Eichler and her concept “monolithic bias,” she uses this to influence piecemeal changes to family law


Socialist marxist feminism
Socialist/Marxist Feminism- evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • 2.Marxist Feminists believe that gender inequality was given an added boost by the capitalist mode of production.


Marxist feminism 4 points
Marxist Feminism 4 points evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Capitalism separates home and work,

  • The public and the private spheres

  • Women’s sphere is the private domestic sphere, her labour in the home is devalued.

  • The solution is transformation of the capitalism


Socialist marxist feminists
Socialist/Marxist Feminists evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • An example is M.Barret and Mary McIntosh, The Anti-Social Family

  • Shows that the bourgeoisie use family to promotes an `Ideology of Familialism’ that affects all institution in this culture.


Radical feminists
Radical Feminists evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Radical Feminists     - Believe gender stratification is not just the result of capitalism….

  • The problem is capitalism and patriarchy.

  • Patriarchy is much more pervasive and historical..ie. Traditional religion-patriarchy.


Suzanne keller s firestone
Suzanne Keller/S. Firestone evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Firestone, The dialectic of sex: The case for feminist revolution (1972).

  • Suzanne Keller, “Ðoes the Family Have a Future” (1971) each contend that radical changes are required before women will have equality.


Minority anti racist
Minority Anti Racist evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

Race, Class and Gender must be examined together.

The experiences of white, middle class women are not universal and monolithic.Carol Stack (1974) research into impoverished Black Families in Southern U.S.


Post modernist feminism
  Post Modernist Feminism evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • 5.   - Seeks to deconstruct old theories on family.

  • Modernist theorizes are grand narratives which limit understanding.

  • Emphasis should be on uniqueness and diversity. Jane Flax (1981) Thinking Fragments: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and Postmodernism in the Contemporary West


Feminist concerns
Feminist Concerns evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Five Key

  • 1. Social construction gender

  • 2. Social Change

  • 3. Family

  • 4. Social theory

  • 5. Social Justice


Social construction gender
Social Construction: Gender evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • The central concept of feminist theory is the social construction of gender.

  • Feminists all critique the essentialist view of gender and family…

  • Ie. T. Parsons-instrumental and expressive role=nuclear family.


Commit to social change
Commit to Social Change evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • 2. Feminists are committed to gender equality and social change.

  • It is an analysis of women’s subordination for the purpose of figuring out how to change it.


Feminists question the family the personal is political
Feminists question the family: The personal is political evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Feminist theories question the family

  • Capitalism and patriarchy thrive upon traditional family (father as provider, mother as homemaker)…

  • Nuclear family fits industrial society…invisible labour in the home…


Feminist theory
Feminist theory evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Feminist theory emphasizes women’s lives and their experiences. The emphasis is upon putting on a new set of glasses.

  • For example, they do not study fathering unless the construction of gender is the central concept.


Feminism and social justice
Feminism and Social Justice evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

4.     Feminist theorists and researcher put their beliefs into action.

5. Barbra Allen was one of the first who put into practice a feminist pedagogy.


Feminist sociology history
Feminist Sociology History evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • First Wave-Suffragettes –Maternal

  • Second Wave-Civil Rights late 60’s and beyond-has various branches.

  • Third Wave-1990’s-more inclusive


Research
Research evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • Socialization is not as important as social stratification

  • THE SYSTEM (capitalism) IS DESIGNED BY MEN (patriarchal) and is UNFAIR!!


Summary
Summary evident….Although we’ve had the feminist movement….we still have Barbie girls….

  • By the 1980's, writers identified liberal, radical and socialist feminism.

  • Important points to remember about the feminist approach to family and gender:

  • The central concept of feminist theory is the social construction of gender.  


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