Asexual Reproduction
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Asexual Reproduction. Production of offspring from one parent Involves mitosis. Mitosis – Cell Division - exact duplication of all the chromosomes (# and information) in the nucleus, then separated into 2 identical sets. - occurs in all cells except sex cells Cancer – abnormal mitosis.

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Asexual Reproduction

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

  • Production of offspring from one parent

  • Involves mitosis

Mitosis – Cell Division

- exact duplication of all the chromosomes (# and information) in the nucleus, then separated into 2 identical sets.

- occurs in all cells except sex cells

Cancer – abnormal mitosis


Asexual reproduction

Structure of a double-stranded chromosome


Asexual reproduction

Chromatid – strand of a chromosome

Chromatin – material of a chromatid

Centromere – holds strands together

Gene – bands of information on chromosome (DNA)

chromatid

centromere


Asexual reproduction

Differences in Mitosis between Animal and Plant Cells

Animal Cells

- have centrioles

- cleavage (cell membrane pinches in – cytokenisis)

Plant Cells

- no centrioles

- no cleavage – cell plate forms (cell wall)


Asexual reproduction

Animal cell mitosis – cleavage – pinching in

cleavage


Asexual reproduction

Plant cell mitosis – cell plate formation


Asexual reproduction

Result of Mitosis:

- 2 identical cells made with the exactchromosome # and information as parent cell – exact replicas.


Asexual reproduction

Methods of Asexual Reproduction

-some organisms reproduce asexually (one parent) using the process of mitosis.

  • Binary Fission:

    • equal division of the cytoplasm of the organism. Ex. Ameba, Paramecium

    • One organism splits itself equally and produces 2 new organisms.


Asexual reproduction

Binary Fission

Paramecium

Ameba


Asexual reproduction

2. Budding:

- unequal division of the cytoplasm (not chromosomes!!!!!)Ex. Hydra and Yeast

Hydra

Yeast


Asexual reproduction

3. Sporulation:

- multicellular organisms

- spores are released and develop new individuals

Bread Mold


Asexual reproduction

4. Regeneration:

- invertebrates – undifferentiated cells (similar)

- development of entire new organism from part of original. Ex. Starfish, planaria

- replacement of lost structure.

Ex. Lobster claw

Planaria

Starfish


Asexual reproduction

5. Vegetative Propagation:

- Asexual Reproduction in Plants (mitosis)

- New plants develop from roots, stems and leaves of parent plant.

Natural: bulbs, tubers, runners


Asexual reproduction

Natural

A. Bulbs – enlarged underground stem

ex. Onion, garlic, tulip


Asexual reproduction

B. Tubers – enlarged underground stem with buds (eyes) ex. Potato


Asexual reproduction

C. Runners – stem that runs along the ground. Ex. strawberries


Asexual reproduction

Artificial:

a. cutting – stem or leaf is placed in soil and a new plant develops. Ex. Geranium


Asexual reproduction

b. Grafting:

- stem of one plant is attached to cut end of another.

- No Blending

- red rose bush grafted to yellow rose bush produces a plant with red and yellow roses.


Asexual reproduction

Results of Asexual Reproduction

  • offspring are genetically identical to parent

  • Same hereditary material (# and information on chromosomes)

  • Same characteristics


Cloning

Cloning

  • Can occur naturally or artificially

  • Artificial- Nuclear Transfer

  • Scientists take a parent (body) cell nucleus (DNA)

  • Insert the nucleus into a donor egg cell (the nucleus from the egg was removed)

  • The egg is now implanted into a surrogate female for development

  • The clone will be genetically identical to the organism that the parent cell nucleus came from


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