Asexual Reproduction. Production of offspring from one parent Involves mitosis. Mitosis – Cell Division - exact duplication of all the chromosomes (# and information) in the nucleus, then separated into 2 identical sets. - occurs in all cells except sex cells Cancer – abnormal mitosis.
Mitosis – Cell Division
- exact duplication of all the chromosomes (# and information) in the nucleus, then separated into 2 identical sets.
- occurs in all cells except sex cells
Cancer – abnormal mitosis
Structure of a double-stranded chromosome
Chromatid – strand of a chromosome
Chromatin – material of a chromatid
Centromere – holds strands together
Gene – bands of information on chromosome (DNA)
Differences in Mitosis between Animal and Plant Cells
- have centrioles
- cleavage (cell membrane pinches in – cytokenisis)
- no centrioles
- no cleavage – cell plate forms (cell wall)
Animal cell mitosis – cleavage – pinching in
Plant cell mitosis – cell plate formation
Result of Mitosis:
- 2 identical cells made with the exactchromosome # and information as parent cell – exact replicas.
Methods of Asexual Reproduction
-some organisms reproduce asexually (one parent) using the process of mitosis.
- unequal division of the cytoplasm (not chromosomes!!!!!)Ex. Hydra and Yeast
- multicellular organisms
- spores are released and develop new individuals
- invertebrates – undifferentiated cells (similar)
- development of entire new organism from part of original. Ex. Starfish, planaria
- replacement of lost structure.
Ex. Lobster claw
5. Vegetative Propagation:
- Asexual Reproduction in Plants (mitosis)
- New plants develop from roots, stems and leaves of parent plant.
Natural: bulbs, tubers, runners
A. Bulbs – enlarged underground stem
ex. Onion, garlic, tulip
B. Tubers – enlarged underground stem with buds (eyes) ex. Potato
C. Runners – stem that runs along the ground. Ex. strawberries
a. cutting – stem or leaf is placed in soil and a new plant develops. Ex. Geranium
- stem of one plant is attached to cut end of another.
- No Blending
- red rose bush grafted to yellow rose bush produces a plant with red and yellow roses.
Results of Asexual Reproduction