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National Parks formed by Ground Water. Mammoth Cave National Park Petrified Forest National Park. Mammoth Cave National Park Vital Statistics. West Central Kentucky 51,000 acres 82 square miles. Human History. ~2000 BC native american camp 1000 BC to AD 900 Woodlands Culture

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national parks formed by ground water

National Parks formed by Ground Water

Mammoth Cave National Park

Petrified Forest National Park

mammoth cave national park vital statistics
Mammoth Cave National ParkVital Statistics
  • West Central Kentucky
  • 51,000 acres
  • 82 square miles
human history
Human History
  • ~2000 BC native american camp
  • 1000 BC to AD 900 Woodlands Culture
    • Wooden bowls, gourds, sandals, woven cord, hearths
    • Collected gypsum
    • Mummified body, 390 BC
  • Settlers (re)discovered cave in ~1799
  • War of 1812, potassium nitrate was mined
  • 1815-1837 several changes in ownership
  • 1837 purchase by Dr. John Croghan $10k
  • 1837-1859 Stephen Bishop, slave and explorer
  • 1926 authorized to become NP
  • 1941 NP Established
geologic features
Geologic Features
  • Primary features related to solution of limestone by groundwater
  • Cave System – Formation of cavities
    • Initial formation in St. Genevieve Limestone
    • Rain water absorbs CO2 in atmos. and soil
    • H2O + CO2 = carbonic acid → dissolves LS
    • Flow along joints, bedding enlarges to cavity
geologic features5
Geologic Features
  • Lowering of groundwater level, usually by deepening of rivers.
  • Cavities drain of water and CaCO3 can be deposited as Dripstone features
  • Cave Deposits
    • Travertine (calcite) dripstone
    • Sediments washed into cave
    • Breakdown, from collapse of rock into cavity
types of flowstone
Types of Flowstone
  • Stalactites
  • Stalagmites
  • Columns & Pillars
  • Curtains
  • Flowstone
  • Helictites
cave life
Cave Life
  • Mammoth Cave blindfish
    • Eyes degenerate or absent
    • Lack of body pigmentation
    • Adaptations to cave life
  • Blind Crayfish
  • Cave crickets
  • Beetles
  • Worms
  • Spiders
  • Bats
surface features
Surface Features
  • Karst Topography
  • Sinkholes
  • Disappearing Streams
geologic history
Geologic History
  • Devonian – New Albany Shale
  • Mississippian – marine deposits ~1200ft
  • Pennsylvanian – shore then river deposits
  • Permian – Cincinnati Arch uplift and tilting
  • Mz – erosion
petrified forest national park vital statistics
Petrified Forest National Park Vital Statistics
  • East-central Arizona
  • ~94,000 acres
  • 146 square acres
human history11
Human History
  • 500 – 800 Basket Maker Culture
  • Pit houses
  • Rectangular houses of stone or adobe
  • Pueblos, some made of petrified logs
  • 1400
human history12
Human History
  • 1850’s first explored by Americans
  • 1878 settlers arrive
  • 1883 RR went through area now park
  • 1896 became Forest Reserve
  • 1898-1900 USGS study
  • 1906 TR National Monument
  • 1921 discovery of Phytosaurs
  • 1931 enlargement
  • 1933 discovery of Fossil Leaves
  • 1962 enlargement and upgrade to NP
geologic features13
Geologic Features
  • Wood petrified by ground water activity
  • Silicification, preserved by silica replacement
  • Logs deposited by flood
  • Volcanic ash
  • Rainwater percolates and dissolves silica
  • Above certain concentration silica precipitates
  • Fills voids first, then replaces cells
colors
Colors
  • Iron Oxides – (jasper) shades of red/yellow/brown and green
  • Manganese – (amethyst) purple
  • Carbon – (“flint”) black
  • Pure silica – (rock crystal) clear or white
  • Tiny crystals – (chalcedony) opaque blue to grey
  • Parallel bands – (agate) several colors
plant fossils over 40 species
Plant Fossils – over 40 species
  • Conifers
    • Araucarioxylon arizonicum – main tree
      • Up to 120 ft tall, 7 feet dia (3-4 ft average)
    • Woodworthina Arizonica
  • Schilderina adamanica
  • Calamites – 30 feet tall, 1 foot diameter
  • Ferns – 19 species
  • Cycads – pineapple base with palm leaves
  • Flowering Plants – primitive
  • Plant Fragments
  • Impressions and carbon films
fossil animals
Fossil Animals
  • Phytosuars – Triassic Croc-like reptile 25ft
  • Labyrinthodont – thick-skulled amphibian related to salamanders, 5ft long
geologic features con t
Geologic Features (con’t)
  • Badlands Topography in Painted Desert
geologic history18
Geologic History
  • Triassic
    • Moenkopi sandstone
    • Shinarump congl.
    • Chinle formation – shale & siltstone plus ash from volcanism in CA and NV
  • Tr-Jr – transgression of sea – marine seds
  • K-early Cz Larimide orogeny – uplift of CP
  • Cz - erosion
legendary explanations
Legendary explanations
  • Result of curse by hungry goddess
  • Paiute Tribe – shafts of the arrows of the Thunder God, Shinuau
  • Navajo Tribe – bones of the great giant, Yietso