National parks formed by ground water
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National Parks formed by Ground Water. Mammoth Cave National Park Petrified Forest National Park. Mammoth Cave National Park Vital Statistics. West Central Kentucky 51,000 acres 82 square miles. Human History. ~2000 BC native american camp 1000 BC to AD 900 Woodlands Culture

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National parks formed by ground water l.jpg

National Parks formed by Ground Water

Mammoth Cave National Park

Petrified Forest National Park


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Mammoth Cave National ParkVital Statistics

  • West Central Kentucky

  • 51,000 acres

  • 82 square miles


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Human History

  • ~2000 BC native american camp

  • 1000 BC to AD 900 Woodlands Culture

    • Wooden bowls, gourds, sandals, woven cord, hearths

    • Collected gypsum

    • Mummified body, 390 BC

  • Settlers (re)discovered cave in ~1799

  • War of 1812, potassium nitrate was mined

  • 1815-1837 several changes in ownership

  • 1837 purchase by Dr. John Croghan $10k

  • 1837-1859 Stephen Bishop, slave and explorer

  • 1926 authorized to become NP

  • 1941 NP Established


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Geologic Features

  • Primary features related to solution of limestone by groundwater

  • Cave System – Formation of cavities

    • Initial formation in St. Genevieve Limestone

    • Rain water absorbs CO2 in atmos. and soil

    • H2O + CO2 = carbonic acid → dissolves LS

    • Flow along joints, bedding enlarges to cavity


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Geologic Features

  • Lowering of groundwater level, usually by deepening of rivers.

  • Cavities drain of water and CaCO3 can be deposited as Dripstone features

  • Cave Deposits

    • Travertine (calcite) dripstone

    • Sediments washed into cave

    • Breakdown, from collapse of rock into cavity


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Types of Flowstone

  • Stalactites

  • Stalagmites

  • Columns & Pillars

  • Curtains

  • Flowstone

  • Helictites


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Cave Life

  • Mammoth Cave blindfish

    • Eyes degenerate or absent

    • Lack of body pigmentation

    • Adaptations to cave life

  • Blind Crayfish

  • Cave crickets

  • Beetles

  • Worms

  • Spiders

  • Bats


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Surface Features

  • Karst Topography

  • Sinkholes

  • Disappearing Streams


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Geologic History

  • Devonian – New Albany Shale

  • Mississippian – marine deposits ~1200ft

  • Pennsylvanian – shore then river deposits

  • Permian – Cincinnati Arch uplift and tilting

  • Mz – erosion


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Petrified Forest National Park Vital Statistics

  • East-central Arizona

  • ~94,000 acres

  • 146 square acres


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Human History

  • 500 – 800 Basket Maker Culture

  • Pit houses

  • Rectangular houses of stone or adobe

  • Pueblos, some made of petrified logs

  • 1400


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Human History

  • 1850’s first explored by Americans

  • 1878 settlers arrive

  • 1883 RR went through area now park

  • 1896 became Forest Reserve

  • 1898-1900 USGS study

  • 1906 TR National Monument

  • 1921 discovery of Phytosaurs

  • 1931 enlargement

  • 1933 discovery of Fossil Leaves

  • 1962 enlargement and upgrade to NP


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Geologic Features

  • Wood petrified by ground water activity

  • Silicification, preserved by silica replacement

  • Logs deposited by flood

  • Volcanic ash

  • Rainwater percolates and dissolves silica

  • Above certain concentration silica precipitates

  • Fills voids first, then replaces cells


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Colors

  • Iron Oxides – (jasper) shades of red/yellow/brown and green

  • Manganese – (amethyst) purple

  • Carbon – (“flint”) black

  • Pure silica – (rock crystal) clear or white

  • Tiny crystals – (chalcedony) opaque blue to grey

  • Parallel bands – (agate) several colors


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Plant Fossils – over 40 species

  • Conifers

    • Araucarioxylon arizonicum – main tree

      • Up to 120 ft tall, 7 feet dia (3-4 ft average)

    • Woodworthina Arizonica

  • Schilderina adamanica

  • Calamites – 30 feet tall, 1 foot diameter

  • Ferns – 19 species

  • Cycads – pineapple base with palm leaves

  • Flowering Plants – primitive

  • Plant Fragments

  • Impressions and carbon films


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Fossil Animals

  • Phytosuars – Triassic Croc-like reptile 25ft

  • Labyrinthodont – thick-skulled amphibian related to salamanders, 5ft long


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Geologic Features (con’t)

  • Badlands Topography in Painted Desert


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Geologic History

  • Triassic

    • Moenkopi sandstone

    • Shinarump congl.

    • Chinle formation – shale & siltstone plus ash from volcanism in CA and NV

  • Tr-Jr – transgression of sea – marine seds

  • K-early Cz Larimide orogeny – uplift of CP

  • Cz - erosion


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Legendary explanations

  • Result of curse by hungry goddess

  • Paiute Tribe – shafts of the arrows of the Thunder God, Shinuau

  • Navajo Tribe – bones of the great giant, Yietso