Polymerization Reactions
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 15

Polymerization Reactions PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 168 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Polymerization Reactions. What is Polymerization?. Polymerization is a process in which very small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically with each other to produce a very large chainlike molecule, called a polymer. The First Polymerization.

Download Presentation

Polymerization Reactions

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Polymerization reactions

Polymerization Reactions


Polymerization reactions

What is Polymerization?

  • Polymerization is a process in which very small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically with each other to produce a very large chainlike molecule, called a polymer.


Polymerization reactions

The First Polymerization

  • The first synthetic polymer was discovered in 1909 by Leo Backeland, a Belgian-born US Chemist.

    • It was marketed under the trademark Bakelite, which was made from phenol and formaldehyde.

    • It became an important plastic and resin for adhesives, and paints.


Polymerization reactions

Polymerization Types

  • There are two main types of Polymerization reactions:

    • Addition

    • Condensation

2 + 2

Think water, although that is not always the case


Polymerization reactions

Addition Polymerization

  • In Addition Polymerization, monomers form without a by-product, such as water.

  • The structure has one structural unit, or monomer, that occurs repeatedly.

  • The monomer molecules may be all alike, or they may represent two, three, or more different compounds. The Addition Reaction involves only double and single bonded compounds.


Polymerization reactions

Addition Polymerization

  • Through polymerization of ethylene (ethene), CH2CH2, the structure of the polymer can be represented by -(CH2CH2)n- where n can be several thousand.

  • Example:

    H H H H H H H H H H H H

    | | | | | | | | | | | |

    C=C + C=C + C=C => :C-C:C-C:C-C:

    | | | | | | | | | | | |

    H H H H H H H H H H H H

    ethylene part of polyethylene

OR -(CH2CH2)n-

  • Because of this, polymers have incredible molar masses up to millions of grams per mole.


Polymerization reactions

Addition Polymerization

  • The elastic property of rubber is due to the flexibility of the long chain molecules.

  • In 1839, American chemist Charles Goodyear discovered that natural rubber could be cross-linked with sulfur. This would prevent the long chains from slipping.

    • This process was known as vulcanization.

    • It paved that way (ha!) for many practical and commercial usage, including using vulcanized rubber for automobile tires.


Polymerization reactions

Free Radical Polymerization

  • Free-Radical Addition is another type of polymerization reaction. This is when the polymer is induced by an initiator, which is a compound that produces free radicals.

  • Free-radicals are species that have an unpaired electron.


Polymerization reactions

Condensation Polymerization

  • In condensation polymerization, two functional groups of two different monomer molecules are joined together which produces a small molecule such as water.

    Remember the ester challenge question?

  • The monomers bond where the hydrogen atom (H+) and hydroxide polyatomic ion (OH-) are taken out to produce water (H2O). In order to become a condensed polymer, the monomer molecules must have functional groups.


Polymerization reactions

Condensation Polymerization

  • The reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol creates an ester.

  • If the carboxylic acid and the alcohol were the monomers of the polymer, during polymerization, they would create polyester, and produce water. (Normally, esters end in –oate, but acetate is used if acetic acid is the parent carboxylic acid group)


Polymerization reactions

Condensation Polymerization

  • An example of condensation polymerization is the curing of concrete

  • There are several types of materials that form by Condensation Polymerization, including nylon, polyesters, rayon, and spandex.


  • Login