Polymerization
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Polymerization. What are polymers?. Polymer : very long molecules made by linking together smaller molecules called monomers. Monomer. Polymer. What are polymers?. Polymer : very long molecules made by linking together smaller molecules called monomers

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Polymerization

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Polymerization

Polymerization


What are polymers

What are polymers?

  • Polymer: very long molecules made by linking together smaller molecules called monomers

Monomer

Polymer


What are polymers1

What are polymers?

  • Polymer: very long molecules made by linking together smaller molecules called monomers

    • Plastics and nylons are examples of polymers

Monomer

Short segment of polyethylene terephthalate polymer

Polymer


Naming polymers

Naming polymers

  • Polymers are named as follows:

    • Write “poly” which means “many”

    • Follow this with the name of the monomer

    • We often use the common name instead of the IUPAC name

    • Example: Consider the monomer 1-chloroethene. The common name for this is “vinyl chloride”. What would the polymer name be?

?


Addition polymerization reactions

Addition Polymerization Reactions

  • Synthetic polymers can be formed by Addition Polymerization, or Condensation Polymerization

  • Addition Polymerization

    • Monomers with double bonds join together through multiple addition reactions

    • Look for: alkenes in the monomer, single bonds in polymer

+

Ethene

Ethene

etc.

Polyethene


Addition polymerization reactions1

Addition Polymerization Reactions

+

ethenylbenzene

(styrene)

Polystyrene “Styrofoam”


Condensation polymerization reactions

Condensation Polymerization Reactions

  • Condensation reactions

    • Monomers are joined together by the formation of ester or amide bonds

    • Look for: reactions between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol (ester bonds), or reactions between a carboxylic acid and an amine (amide bond)

    • Look for: the release of water molecules during the reaction

1,6-diaminohexane

Adipic acid

1,6-diaminohexane

n

Amide bond

Amide bond

Nylon 66


Practice recognizing polymerization reactions

Practice recognizing polymerization reactions

  • Homework

  • Pg 107 q 4-5

  • Pg 111 q 1-3


Photodegradable plastics

Photodegradable Plastics

“Regular” plastic

Photodegradable plastic

Can degrade in a few years to a few months

Degrades if at surface of landfill

Still harmful to land and marine wildlife, but degrades sooner

  • All plastics are eventually degraded by sunlight, this can take 100s to 1000s of years

  • Dr. James Guillet, a Canadian scientist invented a group of plastics that adsorb light easily, which degrades them much faster

  • Some can take 1000 years to break down naturally

  • Barely degrades at all in landfills

  • Harmful to land and marine wildlife


Great pacific garbage patch

Great Pacific Garbage Patch


Biopolymers

Biopolymers

Cellulose

DNA


Biopolymers1

Biopolymers

Proteins


Biopolymers2

Biopolymers

Lipids


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