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DNA & Translation. Gene : section of DNA that creates a specific protein Approx 25,000 human genes Proteins are used to build cells and tissue Protein synthesis involves two processes: 1) Transcription 2) Translation. DNA and Translation. Transcription Review.

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DNA &

Translation


Dna and translation

Gene: section of DNA that creates a specific protein

Approx 25,000 human genes

Proteins are used to build cells and tissue

Protein synthesis involves two processes:

1) Transcription

2) Translation

DNA and Translation


Transcription Review

  • Transcription takes place in the nucleus

    • 1) DNA double helix is broken apart

    • 2) mRNA nucleotides match up

    • 3) Finished mRNA detaches, and moves to a ribosome


Codon: Combination of 3 mRNA nucleotides

Each mRNA codon matches with 1 of 20 amino acids

Ribosome reads codons 1 at a time

Codon AUG = Methionine (Start)

Codon GUU = Valine

Codons UAA or UAG or UGA = Stop

The Genetic Code


Translation Overview

  • Defined: Process of making proteins

    • Step 1: mRNA enters ribosome

    • Step 2: Ribosome reads one mRNA codon at a time

    • Step 3: tRNA delivers amino acids until a protein is created


Translation details

Translation begins when the mRNA codon “AUG” is read by the ribosome

Each mRNA codon matches with a specific amino acid

AUG = methionine

GCU = alanine

tRNA carries over the proper amino acid

tRNA anticodon matches with the mRNA codon

Ensures proper match

One by one, amino acids are linked together

Translation ends when a “stop” codon is read by the ribosome

End result: Protein

Translation Details


Now the codon and anticodon match. This ensures the proper amino acid (serine) is delivered.

This is why the anticodon is important!

Because the codon and anticodon don’t match, the wrong amino acid will not be delivered.


  • Questions to answer: amino acid (serine) is delivered.

  • List the amino acids that will be delivered to this ribosome.

  • 2) What is the anticodon of each codon?

  • 3) When finished, how many amino acids in size is this protein?

Methionine

Pro-line

Serine

Pro-line

Gly-cine

Serine

Ribosome

tRNA

UAC

tRNA

GGC

tRNA

UCA

tRNA

GGU

tRNA

CCU

tRNA

AGA

GAU AUG CCG AGU CCA GGA UCU UGA


Practice problem

Always use mRNA to find the amino acid amino acid (serine) is delivered.

Practice Problem

Threonine

T G A

A C U

U G A


Practice Problem amino acid (serine) is delivered.

Always use mRNA to find the amino acid

Lysine

T T C

A A G

U U C


Practice problem1

Always use mRNA to find the amino acid amino acid (serine) is delivered.

Practice Problem

C

C

A

G

G

U

C

C

A

glycine


Kobe kuiz
Kobe Kuiz amino acid (serine) is delivered.

  • Define transcription? Translation?

  • What are genes and how are they different from chromosomes?

  • How many nucleotides make a codon?

  • The anticodon can be found on which object?

  • The anticodon must match the ______.

  • Place the following steps in order from start to finish:

    a. Proteins are assembled

    b. Ribosome reads a codon one at a time

    c. mRNA arrives at the ribosome

    d. tRNA delivers amino acids to the ribosome

    7) Be able to solve practice problems similar to the three examples on slides #9-11.


Mrna codes
mRNA codes amino acid (serine) is delivered.


Mrna codes1
mRNA codes amino acid (serine) is delivered.


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