Translation Studies. 18. Lexical TOs 4: antonymous translation, total transformation, compensation Krisztina Károly, Spring, 2006 Source: Klaudy, 2003. 1. Antonymous translation. = a standard lexical TO whereby meanings in the SL text are replaced by opposite meanings in the TL text.
18. Lexical TOs 4: antonymous translation, total transformation, compensation
Krisztina Károly, Spring, 2006
Source: Klaudy, 2003
Hungarian ST: ... édesanyám azzal fogadott, hogy az apám már nem él. (Csáth 10) (‘doesn’t live’)
English TT: My mother met me ... with the news that my father had died. (Kessler 18)
1. Negative-positive inversion
2. Positive-negative inversion
3. Conversive translation
4. Antonymous translation in situative utterances
5. Antonymous translation in dialogues
= it is a bidirectional, non language specific transfer operation, independent of language pair and direction of translation.
= also a bidirectional, non L specific transfer operation that is independent of L pair and direction of translation.
Antonymous translation is frequently not the expression of a concept by the denial of the opposing concept (he lives he has not died, he died he does not live), but rather an opposite approach. Instead of he hesitated for a moment before replyingwe say: he replied after hesitating for a moment. Instead of I did not give him the medicine, we say he did not receive the medicine from me.
Commentary:Semmi baj (‘No problem’) in Hungarianis a typical response to the apology Bocsáss meg (‘Sorry’).
Commentary:Házon kívül (lit: Out of the house) in Hungarian it is a typical response to the question Hol van? (‘Where is she?’)
= a standard lexical TO whereby meanings of the SL text are replaced by other meanings in the TL text, which are do not seem to show any logical relation with the SL meanings (=radical departure from the original)
Hungarian ST: A szakácsnő kávét adott, azután a konyhába ment főzni. (Csáth 189)
English TT: ... the cook gave us our cocoa, and went back to work into the kitchen. (Kessler 99)
pragmatic differences, i.e. the differences in the relationship between the linguistic sign and the users of the sign. Translators have an idea of the perspective of the target language reader and perform total transformation with the target language reader's cultural schemata and world knowledge in mind total transformation is frequently referred to as pragmatic adaptation
1. Total transformation of names of foods and beverages
2. Total transformation of names of child’s games
3. Total transformation of proper names
4. Total transformation of address forms
5. Total transformation of names of historical realia
6. Total transformation of idiomatic expressions
7. Total transformation of situative utterances
8. Total transformation of measurements
9. Total transformation of intralingual references
Hungarian ST: Maris megfordult az ágyban, kinyitotta szemét és kinézett az ablakon. (Csáth 5)
English TT: Rosie turn in bed, opened her eyes, and glanced out. (Kessler 185)
Hungarian ST: ... mondta is Gyuri, aki a II. számú anatómiában van. (Csáth 13)
English TT:Even Peter he's in Institute Two said ... (Kessler 185)
Hungarian ST: Én és Dezső mindenből ettünk sorban. (Csáth 38)
English TT: Peter and I take turns eating everything. (Kessler 59)
Hungarian ST: Lábat kell mosni. Rendszeresen Eti kezdi. (Csáth 38)
English TT:We have to wash our feet. Anna's usually first. (Kessler 60)
In translating address forms translators may choose between three different solutions:
In mentioning a historical event, the author can choose between naming the event (conquest of Hungary, revolution, millennium) and giving its date (896, 1848, 1896).
1.Types of losses
1.1.Serial (multiple) losses
1.2.Losses in the translation of metalinguistic information
Beszterce ostroma is full of lexical devices which create the unmistakable atmosphere of Felvidék which was the name of the northern part of Hungary before 1921 (today belongs to Slovakia):
The number of inevitable losses is increased by the translation of metalinguistic references. They can be:
In the closing scene of Mikszáth Kálmán’s novel Beszterce ostroma (The Siege of Besterce)the dead body of count Pongrácz is surrounded by dilettantish, provincial actors. One of them makes an extempore speech over the dead body and for the sake of solemnity he inserts the following English words in his funeral speech: Mylordok, ladyk, (My lords, ladies). Using English addresses in the Hungarian text arouses the effect of false dignity and nobility. and emphasises the tragicomic character of the scene. This effect in English translation is seriously jeopardised.
Hungarian ST: Csak Lengeffy nézte Nedec mozdulatlan urát közömbösen, íly szavakat ejtvén:
English TT: Only Lengeffy gazed with indifference at the motionless body of the Lord of Nedec. He quoted the following lines:
Commentary: Inserted English words are automatically neutralised in the English translation, losing their original function.
English ST:’ Well, she don`t have to worry about that,’ said Kramer. In a room with three people who said She don't, he couldn't get a doesn't out of his mouth. (Wolfe 199)
Hungarian TT: Nos... nem kell aggódnia, eztet elintézzük mondta Kramer. Egy szobában, ahol hárman is eztet mondanak ezt helyett, úgy érezte engednie illik. (Fencsik 157)
Commentary: In the English ST uneducated speech is represented by the incorrect use of the English auxiliary verb do. As there are no auxiliary verbs in Hungarian, the translator decided to render uneducated usage with the accusative of the Hungarian demonstrative pronoun ezt, which has a lower prestige variant eztet.