Final Analysis & Framework for Justice Reinvestment in Wisconsin
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Final Analysis & Framework for Justice Reinvestment in Wisconsin April 7, 2009 Dr. Tony Fabelo Director of Research Dr. Fred Osher Director of Health Systems & Services Policy Marshall Clement Justice Reinvestment Project Director Hope Glassberg & Marc Pelka Policy Analysts. Overview.

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Final Analysis & Framework for Justice Reinvestment in Wisconsin

April 7, 2009

Dr. Tony FabeloDirector of Research

Dr. Fred OsherDirector of Health Systems & Services Policy

Marshall ClementJustice Reinvestment Project Director

Hope Glassberg & Marc PelkaPolicy Analysts


Overview
Overview Wisconsin

1. Big Picture & Prison Population Projection

Dr. Tony Fabelo

2. Analyses of Crime

Marshall Clement

3. Substance Abuse & Mental Health Analyses

Dr. Fred Osher

4. Community Corrections & Employment

Marshall Clement

5. Framework for Justice Reinvestment in WI

Dr. Tony Fabelo


System overview percent change in of incidents persons 2000 2007
System Overview WisconsinPercent Change in # of Incidents & Persons, 2000-2007

Reported Crime

ViolentUp +30%

Arrests

ViolentDown -4%

Court Sentences

Stable

Jail Population

+12%

Probation Population

Felony Up; Misd. Down

Prison Population

1998-2008: +20%

Revocations

+14%

Revocations

+83%

Post-Release SupervisionPopulation

+ 76%


Jfa vs apl projection
JFA vs. APL Projection Wisconsin

APL Projection (2008)

  • Percent of Resident Population in Prison (Rate)XProjected Resident Population in a Given Year=Projected Prison Population

  • Applies rates of incarceration by sex, race/ethnicity, and age to projected changes in the resident population

  • JFA Simulation Model (2009)

  • Based on admissions and releases from WI DOC facilities for a series of years

  • Simulates the current sentencing structure of WI to mimic how offenders flow through the state’s CJ system

  • Allows policymakers to project the impact of policy options by modifying assumptions in the model


New prison population projection
New Prison Population Projection Wisconsin

JFA Projection & Previous APL Projection

25% increase

(JFA Projection)

14% increase(APL Projection)

Capacity Shortfall

6,935

current capacity

*Current Capacity Includes DAI Male and Female Operating Capacity. Does not include WRC (300 beds) or contract beds.


Projection by admission type gender
Projection by Admission Type & Gender Wisconsin

* 45% of New Crime & Probation Violators Category are Probation Violators.


Cost of building to accommodate growth
Cost of Building to Accommodate Growth Wisconsin

JFA Projection

25% increase

(JFA Projection)

10 Year Cumulative Cost Estimate

$1.4b Construction

$1.1b Operating (10 yrs.)

$2.5b Total

current capacity

*Current Capacity Includes DAI Male and Female Operating Capacity. Does not include WRC (300 beds) or contract beds.

*Mead & Hunt 10 Year Plan, based on the APL Projection, estimated $1.2 billion in necessary construction costs to provide sufficient capacity to operate facilities at 85%.

*The costs presented year assume 95% operating capacity.


Admissions to prison per 1000 adults 2007 wisconsin counties
Admissions to Prison per 1000 Adults Wisconsin(2007) Wisconsin Counties

Counties with at least 2% of the State’s Prison Admissions

Milwaukee County is home to 16% of the State’s residents but accounts for 37%of the State’s’ prison admissions; 76% of whom are Black.

Data Source: Wisconsin Department of Corrections Maps: Justice Mapping Systems


Admissions to prison per 1000 adults 2007 milwaukee block groups with alderman districts
Admissions to Prison per 1000 Adults Wisconsin(2007) Milwaukee Block-Groups with Alderman Districts

Districts with Prison Admission Rates of at Least 10 per 1000

Each District has nearly the same population; but while together, the 15th and 6th districts represent about 12% of the City’s population, they account for about 31% of the City’s prison admissions.

Data Source: Wisconsin Department of Corrections Maps: Justice Mapping Systems


Overview1
Overview Wisconsin

1. Big Picture & Prison Population Projection

Dr. Tony Fabelo

2. Analyses of Crime

Marshall Clement

3. Substance Abuse & Mental Health Analyses

Dr. Fred Osher

4. Community Corrections & Employment

Marshall Clement

5. Framework for Justice Reinvestment in WI

Dr. Tony Fabelo


Percent change in violent crime rates 2000 2007 wisconsin
Percent Change in Violent Crime Rates Wisconsin(2000 – 2007) Wisconsin

Statewide Violent Crime

Milwaukee County‘s violent crime rate grew by 42% between 2000 and 2007. Its residents—only 16% of the State’s population—bear over half (54%) of the State’s violent crime.

Dane County with the second highest share of the State’s violent crime (7%), is home to 8% of the State’s population, and experienced a moderate 8% increase.

Home to 4% of the State’s residents, Brown County experienced a 70% increase in violent crime and has the State’s third highest share, a still proportionate (4%).

Data Source: Office of Justice Assistance Maps: Justice Mapping Systems


Crime v prison admissions 2007 milwaukee incident density
Crime v. Prison Admissions Wisconsin(2007) Milwaukee Incident Density

Property Crimes

Violent Crimes

Prison Admissions

The highest violent crime rate Alderman District is 10 times higher than the lowest violent crime rate District.

The highest property crime rate Alderman District is only 3.5 times higher than the lowest property crime rate District.

Prison admissions are more concentrated than either violent or property crime. The highest prison admission rate Alderman District is 19 times higher than the lowest prison admission rate District.

Data Source: Milwaukee Police Department and Wisconsin Department of Corrections Maps: Justice Mapping Systems


Violent and property crime in the triangle 2007 density of incidents
Violent and Property Crime in the Triangle Wisconsin(2007) Density of Incidents

VIOLENT CRIMES

The “Triangle”

PROPERTY CRIMES

Violent Crimes: 492 Total

Property Crimes: 561 Total

Aggravated Assault : 114

Assault: 243

Homicide: 9

Robbery: 91

Sex Offence Forced: 6

Shooting: 29

Burglary: 97

Larceny / Theft: 317

Motor Veh. Theft: 125

Stolen Property: 22

Data Source: Milwaukee Police Department Maps: Justice Mapping Systems


Reentry and supervision in the triangle prison releases 2007 supervision may 13 2007
Reentry and Supervision in the Triangle WisconsinPrison Releases (2007), Supervision (May, 13, 2007)

PRISON RELEASES

The “Triangle”

PROBATIONERS AND POST-RELEASE SUPERVISION

Probationers: 161

Post-Release Supervision: 190

People Released from Prison: 136

Data Source: Wisconsin Department of Corrections Maps: Justice Mapping Systems



Overview2
Overview Wisconsin

1. Big Picture & Prison Population Projection

Dr. Tony Fabelo

2. Analyses of Crime

Marshall Clement

3. Substance Abuse & Mental Health Analyses

Dr. Fred Osher

4. Community Corrections & Employment

Marshall Clement

5. Framework for Justice Reinvestment in WI

Dr. Tony Fabelo


Substance use disorders among jail admissions national data
Substance Use Disorders WisconsinAmong Jail Admissions (National Data)

Source: The National GAINS Center, 2004


Serious mental disorders general population vs jail admissions national data
Serious Mental Disorders WisconsinGeneral Population vs. Jail Admissions (National Data)

Source: The National GAINS Center, 2004


Co-Occurring WisconsinDisorders

Among Jail Detainees with SMI (National Data)

Without Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorders

With Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorders

Source: The National GAINS Center, 2004


Morphologic changes associated with mi

NORMAL Wisconsin

DEPRESSION

Figure 1

J Douglas Bremner, MD, Yale University

Morphologic Changes Associated with MI


Sequential Intercept Model Wisconsin

Source: Munetz, Griffen, 2005


Methods
Methods Wisconsin

  • Focused on individuals with behavioral health disorders on Probation, Parole, Mandatory Release (MR), and Extended Supervision (ES)

  • Analyzed data from the Division of Adult Institutions (DAI) and Division of Community Corrections (DCC) from 2005 and 2007

  • Assessed issue with subject matter experts from DAI, DCC, and DHS; judges, community behavioral healthcare providers; and group assembled by Chief Justice Abrahamson related to Chief Justice Initiative

  • Developed recommendations in key focus areas


Law enforcement current practices
Law-Enforcement: WisconsinCurrent Practices

  • Law enforcement officers expressed concern about encounters with people with mental illnesses

  • Officers describe lack of booking alternatives

  • Officers from approximately 70 communities have received Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training


Courts current practices
Courts: WisconsinCurrent Practices

  • Assess Inform and Measure (AIM) project implemented in six counties

  • 20 drug courts in Wisconsin, and Eau Claire County launched Mental Health Court Pilot

  • Chief Justice Mental Health Task Force


Doc intake behavioral health current practices
DOC Intake: WisconsinBehavioral Health Current Practices

  • At intake, all prisoners screened for mental health needs and substance use disorders all go through second level of screening with psychology staff

  • Unstructured assessment process (at Taycheedah more intensive follow-up and assessments required at Wisconsin Resource Center) †

  • Based on screen, may be transferred to special facility/unit, but treatment resources and housing capacity limited

† For those with identified mental health needs, there is a mandate for mental health monitoring, which includes file reviews and interviews. Therefore, further "assessment" is routinely done on those with identified mental health needs, although it is not done with a structured, formal assessment instrument.


Doc intake prison admissions data mental health alcohol drug
DOC Intake: WisconsinPrison Admissions Data: Mental Health, Alcohol, Drug

* Inmate population as of July 2008, from Legislative Audit Bureau Report, see pg. 24

† AODA information is compiled from available DOC 502 Risk and Needs Assessment,, which takes place upon intake to supervision (not intake to prison), so percentages only apply to individuals who have been under community supervision prior to intake to prison. Also, for the AODA information, intake to prison includes any admission type (new sentence, no new sentence, ATR, and Temp P&P holds). This slide includes AODA information for individuals admitted to prison in 2007.


Reentry current practices
Reentry: WisconsinCurrent Practices

  • Minimal specialized reentry planning focused on mental illnesses and substance abuse

  • All inmates complete a general health education module, includes some behavioral health elements

  • DOC policy is to provide two-week supply of meds, as well as 30-day prescription

  • Social workers in DOC assist MH-2 in applying for Social Security benefits before release


Supervision current practices
Supervision: WisconsinCurrent Practices

  • No standardized mental health or substance abuse screens used for probationers, limited assessment

  • Limited community-based options for continuum of services, sanctions, and alternative to revocation options

  • DCC agents do not routinely receive behavioral health information from institutions for parolees and ES

  • Specialized mental health supervision unit in Milwaukee (10 agents) and Dane (2 agents)


Supervision current practices1
Supervision: WisconsinCurrent Practices


Community-Based Services: WisconsinCurrent Practices

  • Inadequate access to behavioral health services

    • In rural communities, transportation to services a significant challenge

    • Marked variations between counties in range and type of services

    • Services for probationers not prioritized by county systems (in limited cases, some parolees/ES are prioritized)

  • Inadequate access to Evidence-based Practices

    • Separate mental health and substance use disorder service systems limit co-occurring treatment options

    • Few Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions targeted to risk

    • Long wait lists for Assertive Community Treatment (CSP)


Purchase of service overview
Purchase of Service Overview Wisconsin

  • AODA spending increased significantly over the past three years

  • Limited POS for COD and mental health treatment

  • Challenge to ensure that limited funding is directed to services that match risk/needs of supervised population


Tailor supervision treatment to level of risk and functional impairment
Tailor Supervision & Treatment Wisconsinto Level of Risk and Functional Impairment

  • New Justice Center guide, Improving Outcomes for People with Mental Illnesses under Community Corrections Supervision: A Guide to Research-Informed Policy and Practice available at www.consensusproject.org


Intercept specific recommendations
Intercept-Specific Recommendations Wisconsin

Courts

PrisonReentry

Community Corrections

Law Enforcement

Jails

  • Increase training opportunities

  • Develop capacity for drop-offs

  • Increase number of specialized LE programs across the state

  • Address medication gap issue

  • Expand AIM

  • Consider expansion of specialized dockets

  • Chief Justice Task Force follow-up

  • Assign agents based on SA/MH needs

  • Improve information sharing

  • Prioritize people by impairment/risk

  • Increase agent behavioral health training

  • Decrease size of specialized caseloads


System recommendations
System Recommendations Wisconsin

  • Screening & Assessment

  • Information Sharing Across Systems

  • Community-Based Service Capacity

  • Coordination


Financing recommendations
Financing Recommendations Wisconsin

  • Target resources toward those who are high/medium risk and high need, save resources and have greater impact

  • Investigate alternative use of jail assessment funds

  • Consider use of DOC POS dollars to leverage federal dollars as county match for Medicaid services


Next steps
Next Steps Wisconsin

  • Incorporate feedback from the committee on recommendations and areas of interest

  • Justice Center Justice Reinvestment staff to return next week with policy options


Overview3
Overview Wisconsin

1. Big Picture & Prison Population Projection

Dr. Tony Fabelo

2. Analyses of Crime

Marshall Clement

3. Substance Abuse & Mental Health Analyses

Dr. Fred Osher

4. Community Corrections & Employment

Marshall Clement

5. Framework for Justice Reinvestment in WI

Dr. Tony Fabelo


Revocations drive wi prison admissions
Revocations Drive WI Prison Admissions Wisconsin

Revocations (w/ No New Sentence) increased from 50% to 61% of all prison admissions

Cost of Incarceration for Revocations (w/ No New Sentence) in 2007: $286 m

% of prison population incarcerated for a revocation (w/ No New Sentence) increased from 16% to 39%


Revocations w no new sentence by type of supervision 2000 2007
Revocations (w/ No New Sentence) by Type of Supervision Wisconsin(2000-2007)

2000

2007

Probation Revocations

14%

1,948

2,234

Probation Population

-3%

54,385

55,905

Post-Release Supervision Revocations

(ES/Parole/MR)

83%

1,842

3,374

Post-Release Population

76%

9,890

17,376


Supervision period has doubled
Supervision Period Has Doubled Wisconsin

Length of Prison Admissions w/ New Sentences

Post Release Supervision Population

9890

14,052

17,376


Community supervision per 1000 adults may 13 2007 milwaukee block groups
Community Supervision per 1000 Adults Wisconsin(May 13, 2007) Milwaukee Block-Groups

Districts with Supervision Rates of at Least 50 per 1000

Thirteen percent (13%) of adults in the 15th District and 11% of adults in the 6th District are under probation or post release (ES, Parole, MR) supervision.

Data Source: Wisconsin Department of Corrections Maps: Justice Mapping Systems


Employment
Employment Wisconsin

Employment Status of Post-Release Supervision Population

Employed 1 Year

1%

Unemployed

71% (approximately 12,000 individuals)

Unemployable

11%

Employed

18%

.

Coordinating & Expanding Local Efforts

Numerous local non-profits and foundations developing or running employment programs either targeting people on community supervision or accessible to them.

Opportunity in Milwaukee to review target population and coordinate among programs

Developing a Strategy

Annie E. Casey Foundation is supporting WI DOC in developing strategies for people in prison and returning to the community

WI DOC Community-Based Programs

Windows to WorkPartnership between WI DOC and Bay Area Workforce Investment Board serving 40 individuals/yr currently across three counties providing job prep in prison and job development in the community. Planning to expand to Milwaukee

Community Corrections Employment Program71 transitional job slots currently occupied; 46 work subsidies/OJT currently being used


Releases from prison per 1000 adults 2007 milwaukee block groups with alderman districts
Releases from Prison per 1000 Adults Wisconsin(2007) Milwaukee Block-Groups with Alderman Districts

Districts with Prison Reentry Rates Greater than 15 per 1000

People returning from prison to the 15th District and the 6th Districts are returning to neighborhoods with unemployment rates of 19%and18%respectively.

Data Source: Wisconsin Department of Corrections Maps: Justice Mapping Systems


Employment strategies
Employment Strategies Wisconsin

Initial Employment Upon Release

Stable Employment & Job Upgrades

Pre-Release Preparation

In-Prison Education & Training

Community Corrections Employment Program (transitional jobs, wage subsidies, placement)

Numerous nonprofit programs

Various foundations are interested in employment strategies for people on community supervision

Fairly extensive vocational training offered by WI Technical Colleges and DOC-hired instructors

Need to examine the alignment of training offered to current employment sectors and job market

Work Release

Bureau of Correctional Enterprises

Pre-release curriculum offered to update resume, develop job search plan, fill out practice applications

Development of “portfolios” to help offenders present their strengths to employers

Windows to Work

Workforce Investment Board Job Centers across the state


Overview4
Overview Wisconsin

1. Big Picture & Prison Population Projection

Dr. Tony Fabelo

2. Analyses of Crime

Marshall Clement

3. Substance Abuse & Mental Health Analyses

Dr. Fred Osher

4. Community Corrections & Employment

Marshall Clement

5. Framework for Justice Reinvestment in WI

Dr. Tony Fabelo


Big picture
Big Picture Wisconsin

  • Population Projection

    • 25% growth by 2019

    • $2.5 billion (10 year cumulative cost)

  • Crime Analysis

    • Despite rising prison population, violent crime has increased

    • Milwaukee accounts for half of all violent crime

    • Within Milwaukee, certain neighborhoods are disproportionately victimized

  • Substance Abuse & Mental Health

    • Permeates key aspects of the CJ system’s population

    • “Dropping the Baton”

    • Limited access to services


Big picture cont
Big Picture, cont. Wisconsin

  • Community Corrections & Employment

    • Another issue that permeates the CJ system’s population

    • 70% of people on community supervision are unemployed

    • People released from prison disproportionately return to neighborhoods with high unemployment


Justice reinvestment policy framework for wisconsin
Justice Reinvestment WisconsinPolicy Framework for Wisconsin

Goal: Increase Public Safety & Reduce Spending on Corrections

Front-End/Sentencing

Back-End/Supervision

Coordination& Evaluation

Targeting Supervision

Changing Behavior


Next meeting
Next Meeting Wisconsin

Bipartisan, inter-branch, bicameral structure

  • 1

  • Analysis

  • Identify Drivers

  • Solicit Input from Stakeholders

  • Map Key Issues

  • Develop Framework

  • Identify Policy Options

  • Estimate Costs & Savings

2

Implementation

3

Accountability

April 7:

Meeting to review final analysis & framework

March 11:

Meeting to review progress

Next meeting to review policy options & cost savings estimates


Thank you
Thank You Wisconsin

CONTACT

Marc Pelka

Policy Analyst

(646) 383-5720

[email protected]


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