The Criminal Justice System: An Overview Fundamentals of Criminology Dr. Lydia Voigt Components of Criminal Justice Components of Criminal Justice The Criminal Justice System Police Courts Corrections American Criminal Justice in Historical Perspective
Fundamentals of Criminology
Dr. Lydia Voigt
Components of Criminal Justice
The Criminal Justice System
Gradual organizational changes in the CJ system have been brought about by increased urbanization, increases in the incidence of crime, and the expansion of due process rules and procedures.
The English legacy: The London Metropolitan Police Act – 1829
Early American Police agencies: New York City police force – 1845
Current characteristics of the police force
Among the occupational hazards of the police is the contradiction embedded within the police mandate to achieve maximum order within the framework of maximum legality.
Clients are:Delinquents (juveniles who commit crime)
Children in Need of Supervision(Abandoned, abused children)
(truants, runaways, incorrigible or unmanageable juveniles)
Formal law in the colonies was adopted from existing English law, which today is known as common law.
More serious than misdemeanor
Punishable by death or imprisonment in a penitentiary
A less serious crime
Punishable by fine, probation, community service, or jail time (less than a year)Comparison of Felony and Misdemeanors
Procedural laws control the action of the agencies of justice and define the rights of criminal defendants.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall be issued, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Used to hold states to similar standards
as the federal government.
Minimum security prisons
Medium security prisons
Maximum security prisons
Ultra-maximum security prisons
“The contemporary criminal justice system is monumental in size. It consists of more that 55,000 public agencies, and now costs the federal, state, and local governments nearly $150 billion for civil and criminal justice; this amounts to more that $500 for every resident in the United States” (Siegel 2003: 460).