Stallion anatomy and physiology
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STALLION ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. REPRODUCTIVE TRACT OF THE STALLION CONSISTS OF. BRAIN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ENDOCRINE SYSTEM TESTICLES EPIDIDYMIS VAS DEFERENS ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS URETHRA PENIS ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES. TESTICLES. OF ABDOMINAL ORIGIN

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Reproductive tract of the stallion consists of
REPRODUCTIVE TRACT OF THE STALLION CONSISTS OF

  • BRAIN

  • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  • ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • TESTICLES

  • EPIDIDYMIS

  • VAS DEFERENS

  • ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS

  • URETHRA

  • PENIS

  • ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES


Testicles
TESTICLES

  • OF ABDOMINAL ORIGIN

  • LOCATED EXTERNALLY IN THE SCROTUM WITHIN A REFLECTION OF THE PERITONEUM KNOWN AS THE TUNICA VAGINALIS

  • CONTAIN GAMETE CELLS AND SPERM STEM CELLS THAT PRODUCE SPERMATOZOA

  • TUBULAR SYSTEM OF THE TESTICLE CONNECTS TO THE…


Epididymis
EPIDIDYMIS

  • BEGINS AT THE CAUDAL END OF THE TESTICLE

  • RUNS THE FULL LENGTH OF THE TESTICLE TO THE VAS DEFERENS



Vas deferens
VAS DEFERENS Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • TRAVERSES BACK THROUGH THE ABDOMEN TO THE CRANIAL PELVIC CAVITY

  • CONNECTS TO THE PELVIC PORTION OF THE URETHRA


Urethra
URETHRA Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • PELVIC PORTION URETHRA HAS:

    • SECONDARY SEX GLANDS ON EACH SIDE

    • PROSTATE

    • SEMINAL VESICLES

    • BULBAR URETHRAL GLAND

  • THESE GLANDS PRODUCE THE NONSPERM PORTION OF THE EJACULATE=

    • PREJACULATE FLUID

    • SEMINAL PLASMA

    • GEL

  • URETHRA EXTENDS DOWN BETWEEN HIND LEGS

    • TO THE PENIS LOCATED ON CAUDAL VENTRAL ABDOMINAL MIDLINE JUST AHEAD OF SCROTUM

    • PENIS CONTAINS ERECTILE TISSUE NECESSARY FOR COITUS


Stallion physiology
Stallion Physiology Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Onset of sexual maturity 10-24 months

  • Sperm output

    • Semen volume/ejaculate, ml 30- 200+cc total output

    • Sperm Rich portion usually constant around 45-70cc

    • Gel portion changes considerable with teasing and amount of activity

    • Sperm output 6-9 billion (fpm)

    • Survival time with fertilizing capacity -1-2 days


Testis
Testis Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Average size – 9x6x5 cm

  • Total scrotal width > 80 mm

  • Testicular Parenchyma-90%

    • Increases during the long days

  • Seminiferous tubules (70%)

  • Sertoli cells (30%)

    • Increase with age (2-3, 4-5) and season

  • Leydid cells (2-12-18%)

    • Increase with age (2-3, 4-5, 13-20) and season


Stallion physiology1

Up to 70,000 spermatozoa/second Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

57 days for each cell

Daily production = 3 billion or more

Age and season dependent

Stallion Physiology


Average testicular volume for horse for different ages
Average Testicular Volume for Horse for Different Ages Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG


Stallions have annual rhythm much like mares
STALLIONS HAVE ANNUAL RHYTHM MUCH LIKE MARES Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • ASSOCIATED WITH LENGTH OF DAYLIGHT/DARKNESS

  • TESTOSTERONE PEAKS @ MIDDLE OF BREEDING SEASON

  • TESTOSTERONE DEPRESSED IN WINTER


Sperm has 3 jobs to accomplish for success
SPERM HAS 3 JOBS TO ACCOMPLISH FOR SUCCESS Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • ONCE PLACED IN BODY OF UTERUS BY EJACULATION:

    • MOTILITY

    • CAPACITATION

    • EXCHANGE OF CHROMATIN MATERIAL

  • THERE ARE METHODS TO TEST MOTILITY, ACROSOMAL FUNCTION, AND CHROMATIN QUALITY


Motility
MOTILITY Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Function of the Middle Piece

  • Mitochrondrial Activity

  • Consumes Energy

  • Must be forward Progressive to be of Value


Capasitation
Capasitation Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Function of the Acrosome

  • Releases enzymes that react with the Zona Pellucida

  • Takes the enzyme of many sperm to cause reaction

  • Sperm are viable for 24hr. After


Chromatin transfer
Chromatin Transfer Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Function of the Head

  • Contains Genetic material

  • imperfict Chromatin will result in early embryo loss


Semen has three parts
Semen Has Three Parts Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Pre-ejaculate Clear lubricant

  • Sperm Rich Sperm and seminal plasma

  • Gel Mucous substance at end of ejaculation


Semen output
Semen output Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • 30- 200+cc total output

  • Sperm Rich portion usually constant around 45-70cc

  • Gel portion changes considerable with teasing and amount of activity

  • Sperm output 6-9 billion (fpm)

  • Total output change with activity

  • Maximum Standard use every 8 hr.


Number of sperm depends on
Number of Sperm Depends On: Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Seasonal Influences (Photoperiod)

    • Effected Areas

      • Ejaculate volume

      • Sperm numbers

      • Total sperm/ejaculate

      • Sperm motility

      • Willingness to breed

      • Mounts before breeding

      • Scrotal size

      • Testosterone production


Sperm dose
Sperm Dose Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Under Debate

  • Changes with Breeding Technique

  • Industry Standard at present is considered 500 million (fpm)

  • Higher for frozen semen

  • Lower for specialized


Semen extending and storage
Semen Extending and Storage Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • Use To increase Number of doses per ejaculate

  • Used to increase sperm survival in Fresh Cooled or Frozen storage


Centrifugation
Centrifugation Settings\HP_Owner\Desktop\101MSDCF\DSC00084.JPG

  • To Increase Concentration of Sperm

  • Remove Bacteria

  • Remove Seminal Plasma

  • Increase Quality in storage


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