Anatomy and physiology
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Anatomy and Physiology. Reproductive Systems. Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System. Testicles Produce Sperm Also called Spermatozoa Produce a hormone called testosterone Epididymis Stores Sperm cells One for each testicle. Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System. Scrotum

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Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

Reproductive Systems


Major organs of the male reproductive system

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Testicles

    • Produce Sperm

      • Also called Spermatozoa

    • Produce a hormone called testosterone

  • Epididymis

    • Stores Sperm cells

      • One for each testicle


Major organs of the male reproductive system1

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Scrotum

    • Two lobed sac that contains and protects the testes

      • Regulates temperature

        • When temp. is too high, the scrotum relaxes, allowing the testicles away from the body

        • When temp. is too low, it contracts, pulling the testicles toward the body

        • Temperature affects the vitality of sperm


Major organs of the male reproductive system2

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Vas Deferens

    • Transportation tube carrying sperm from the epididymis to the urethra


Major organs of the male reproductive system3

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Urethra

    • Large, muscular canal extending from the urinary bladder

      • Both semen and urine move through the urethra to the end of the penis

  • Accessory Sex Glands

    • Add volume and nutrition to the sperm-rich fluid coming from the epididymis


Major organs of the male reproductive system4

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Seminal Vesicles

    • Open into the urethra

    • Produce a fluid that protects and transports the sperm

  • Prostate Gland

    • Near the urethra and bladder

    • Produces a nutritious fluid that is mixed with the seminal fluid


Major organs of the male reproductive system5

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Cowper’s Gland

    • Produces a fluid that moves down the urethra ahead of the seminal fluid

    • This fluid cleans and neutralizes the urethra

    • Helps protect the sperm as they move through the urethra

  • Semen

    • Mixture of seminal and prostate fluid and sperm


Major organs of the male reproductive system6

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Penis

    • Deposits the semen within the female reproductive system

    • The urethra in the penis is surrounded by spongy tissue that fills with blood when the male is sexually aroused

      • Causes an erection that is necessary for Copulation, or mating to occur

  • Copulation

    • The process of mating


Major organs of the male reproductive system7

Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System

  • Sigmoid Flexure

    • Found in bulls, rams, and boars

    • Gives the penis slack in order to extend during erection

  • Sheath

    • A tubular fold of skin, protecting the penis while not erect

  • Retractor Penis Muscle

    • Found in bulls, rams, and boars

    • Allows relaxation and extension of penis through the sheath


Reproductive diagram of the bull

Reproductive Diagram of the Bull


Reproductive system of a ram

Reproductive System of a Ram


Reproductive system of a stallion

Reproductive System of a Stallion


Rooster reproductive tract

Rooster Reproductive Tract


Organs of the female reproductive tract

Organs of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Ovary

    • Produces female Gametes

    • Gamete

      • Sex cell that can unite with other sex cells

    • Female gametes are called Ova or eggs

    • Females typically have two ovaries

    • Ovaries also produce female sex hormones

      • Estrogen and Progesterone

    • Within ovaries are hundreds of tiny Follicles or cavities

      • Ova are produced in these follicles

        • Each ovum is the largest single cell in the animal’s body


Organs of the female reproductive tract1

Organs of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Oviducts

    • Two tubes that carry the ova from the ovaries to the uterus

      • Also called Fallopian Tubes

    • The oviducts are close but not attached to the ovaries

      • The funnel-shaped end of each oviduct that is close to the ovary is called the Infundibulum

    • At ovulation the follicle ruptures, releasing an ovum that is caught by the infundibulum

    • After copulation, sperm move through the uterus to the oviduct

      • Fertilization occurs in the upper end of the oviduct

    • The Zygote, or fertilized egg cell, moves to the uterus about two to four days after fertilization


Organs of the female reproductive tract2

Organs of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Uterus

    • Y-shaped structure consisting of the body, two uterine horns, and the cervix


Organs of the female reproductive tract3

Organs of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Uterine horns

    • The upper part of the uterus that develop into the fallopian tubes

      • Mammals that generally produce large numbers of offspring have large uterine horns and a small uterine body

      • Animals having only one or two offspring generally have a large uterine body and smaller uterine horns

      • In Horses, pregnancy normally occurs in the body of the uterus

      • In all species, the fetus grows within the uterus where it remains until Parturition or birth


Organs of the female reproductive tract4

Organs of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Cervix

    • The lower outlet of the uterus

      • Composed mostly of connective tissue that constitutes the gateway between the uterus and the vagina

      • The cervix is lined with mucosal cells that make significant changes as the animal goes from one estrous cycle to the next and during gestation or pregnancy


Organs of the female reproductive tract5

Organs of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Vagina

    • Serves as the female organ of copulation at mating and as the birth canal at parturition

      • It is the passage between the cervix and the vulva

      • The lining is moist during estrus and dry when the animal is not in estrus

  • Bladder

    • Collects the liquid waste called urine

      • Urine passes through the urethra to the vagina

      • The urethra attaches to the floor of the vagina between the cervix and the vulva

      • The bladder is not considered part of the reproductive tract in females


Organs of the female reproductive tract6

Organs of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Vulva

    • External opening of the reproductive and urinary systems

      • The exterior, and visible part of the vulva, consists of two folds called the Labia Majora

      • The Labia Minora are the two folds located just inside the labia majora

  • Clitoris

    • The sensory and erectile organ of the female

      • Located just inside the vulva

      • Develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis in the male and produces sexual stimulation during copulation


Mare reproductive tract

Mare Reproductive Tract


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