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Anatomy and Physiology. Chapter 12. BLOOD. William Harvey- father of physiology: discovered that blood circulated through the body in 1628. Blood..a liquid “ tissue ” ???. How are Tissue Classified ?(AGAIN). Epithelial - lining or covering and glandular tissue.

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Anatomy

and

Physiology

Chapter 12


BLOOD


William Harvey- father of physiology: discovered that blood circulated through the body in 1628.


Blood..a liquid “tissue”???


How are Tissue Classified ?(AGAIN)

Epithelial- lining or covering and glandular tissue.

Muscle- highly specialized to contract

Nervous- irritability and conductivity

Connective-Connects body parts; Must be living cells surrounded by a matrix. Example: Bone (cells sitting in lacunae in hardened matrix of calcium salts in Collagen fibers)


Bloodis considered to be a type of connective tissue. Even though it has a different function in comparison to other connective tissues it does have an extracellular matrix.

The matrix is the plasma and erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are suspended in the plasma.


Blood

  • The only fluid tissue in the human body

  • Classified as a connective tissue

    • Living cells = formed elements

    • Non-living matrix = plasma


  • Introduction

    • Blood, a type of connective tissue, is a complex mixture of cells, chemicals, and fluid.

    • Blood transports substances throughout the body, and helps to maintain a stable internal environment.

    • The blood includes

      • Red blood cells – oxygen carrying cells

      • White blood cells – fights infections

      • Platelets – assist in the clotting of blood

      • Plasma – water, proteins, vitamins, cellular wastes, etc.

    • A blood hematocrit is normally 45% cells and 55% plasma.


  • Red Blood Cells

    • Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are biconcave disks that contain one-third oxygen-carrying hemoglobin by volume.

      • When oxygen combines with hemoglobin bright red oxyhemoglobin results.

      • Deoxygenated blood (deoxyhemoglobin) is darker.

    • Red blood cells discard their nuclei during development and so cannot reproduce or produce proteins.

    • Typical Red Blood cell counts (Approx. 5 million per drop)

      • 4,600,000 - 6,200,000 cells per mm3 for males

      • 4,500,000 - 5,100,000 cells per mm3 for females.

    • The number of red blood cells is a measure of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity.


  • The average life span of a red blood cell is 120 days.

  • The number of red cells is held relatively constant by the hormone erythropoietin (produced by kidneys)


Control of Erythrocyte Production

  • Rate is controlled by a hormone (erythropoietin)

  • Kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood

  • Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback from blood oxygen levels


Control of Erythrocyte Production: Homeostasis

Figure 10.5


Hypoxia

  • Prolonged oxygen deficiency due to deoxyhemoglobin (red blood cells not binded to O2) leads to cyanosis


  • White Blood Cells

  • White blood cells (leukocytes) help defend the body against disease.

    • Normally a milliliter of blood contains 5,000 to 10,000 white blood cells.

  • There are five types of white cells that can be distinguished by physical features.

    • Neutrophils have fine cytoplasmic granules and a multi-lobed nucleus when red staining

      • They comprise 54-62% of leukocytes.

      • Ingest and destroy bacteria

    • Eosinophils have coarse granules that stain deep red, a bi-lobed nucleus,

      • 1-3% of circulating leukocytes.

      • Control allergic reactions by removing chemicals


  • Neutrophil – multi-lobed nucleus. Fine cytoplasmic granules

    Eosinophil –cytoplasmic granules when red stained


    • 3.Basophils have fewer granules that stain blue

      • Fewer than 1% of leukocytes.

      • Release heparin and histamine, which increases blood flow

      • Cause body’s response to allergens.


    • Monocytes are the largest blood cells, have variably shaped nuclei

      • Make up 3-9% of circulating leukocytes.

      • Can engulf and kill larger invading objects

    • Lymphocytes are long-lived, have a large, round nucleus,

      • 25-33% of circulating leukocytes.

      • Important for production of antibodies.


    Monocyte – kidney, oval, or lobe shaped nucleus.

    Lymphocyte – large round nucleus.


    • Blood Plasma

      • Plasma is the clear, straw-colored fluid portion of the blood.

      • Plasma is mostly water (90+%) but contains a variety of substances.

      • Plasma functions to transport nutrients and gases, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and maintain a favorable pH.

      • Plasma proteins fall into three groups

        • The albumins help maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood and account for 60% of the plasma proteins.

        • The globulins, comprising 36% of the plasma proteins, are designated as alpha, beta, and gamma globulins.

          • Alpha and beta globulins transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins

          • Gamma globulins are a type of antibody

        • Fibrinogen (4%) plays a primary role in blood coagulation.


    • Plasma also carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.

      • Oxygen is carried in low levels in the plasma but mostly by the red blood cells.

      • Carbon dioxide is carried in the plasma as carbonic acid.

    • Additionally, there are molecules called lipoproteins that help transport lipids throughout the bloodstream

      • Chylomicrons – transport dietary fats from small intestine

      • VLDL – transport triglycerides from liver to adipose tissue

      • LDL – Delivers cholesterol to cells (Considered to be “Bad” cholesterol.)

      • HDL – transports broken down chylomicrons to liver. (Considered to be “Good” cholesterol.)


    • Hemostasis

      • Hemostasis refers to the stoppage of bleeding.

      • Following injury to a vessel, three steps occur in hemostasis:

        • Blood vessel spasm

          • Roughly cutting a blood vessel causes the muscle in its walls to contract in a reflex, or engage in vasospasm.

        • Platelet plug formation

          • Platelets stick to the exposed edges of damaged blood vessels, forming a net.

          • A platelet plug is most effective on a small vessel.

        • Blood coagulation

          • A variety of chemicals and proteins are used to form a clot


    • ABO Blood Group

      • This refers to the type of antigens and antibodies found in the blood stream.

      • It allows doctors to determine what type of blood to give if a transfusion is necessary.

      • The wrong blood can cause agglutination in a patient leading to death.

      • Antigens – molecules on the outer surface of the cell

      • Antibodies – molecules floating in plasma that help fight infections.

        • Type O is most common (47%) and has no antigens but both A and B antibodies

        • Type A is next (41%) and has A antigens and B antibodies.

        • Type B follows (9%) and has B antigens and A antibodies.

        • Type AB is least common (3%) and has A and B antigens and no antibodies.


    Was Charlie Chaplin the father?

    • In 1944 the actress Joan Barry (blood group A) sued Charlie Chaplin (blood group O) for support of her child (phenotype B).

    • The blood group evidence was presented in court.

    • The jury supported Joan Barry’s claim. Were they right?

    The mother must be Heterozygous A (Ao)

    The child must be Heterozygous B (Bo, inheriting the “o” from mother)

    The child must have inherited a “B” from the father.

    Charlie Chaplin was Homozygous O (oo) and therefore could not have been the father.

    ?


    • The Rh factor on blood refers to the positive or negative part of the blood type.

      • Rh+ blood has an extra molecule on the blood cell.

      • Rh- blood does not have this extra molecule.

    • It can lead to problems like erythroblastosis fetalis

      • Occurs when an Rh- woman and an Rh+ man conceive a child.


    The End


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