WORLD WAR II. The second world war started in 1939,when Germany invaded Poland. Then lots of countries joined together to fight the Germans . Later the Japanese invaded the U.S.A this was called Pearl Harbour. It all continued for 6 years and stopped in 1945. THE BLITZ.
WORLD WAR II
The second world war started in 1939,when Germany invaded Poland. Then lots of countries joined together to fight the Germans . Later the Japanese invaded the U.S.A thiswas called Pearl Harbour. It allcontinued for 6 years and stopped in 1945.
In just a few months, the Germans took over
most of Western Europe.
Then they started bombing
cities in Britain , this was
called The Blitz . The bombs
destroyed buildings and
killed thousands of people.
Later in the war, the British
dropped bombs on German
This is what he did to the Jewish people.
The German leader Adolf Hitler wanted to kill all the Jewish people in Europe. During the war he had 6 million Jews murdered. This terrible crime was called The Holocaust.
About 50 million people lost there lives in WW2.
Before the war ,Britain imported 55 million tons of food, a month after the war had started this figure had dropped to 12 million.
The Ration Book became the key to survival for nearly every household in Britain.
Every member of the public was issued with a ration book.
What were ration books?
They were books which contained coupons that shopkeepers cut out or signed when people bought food and other items. (People still paid for the goods with money.)
Why were there different colour ration books?
'The colour of your ration book was very important as it made sure you go the right amount and types of food needed for your health.
The Different Coloured Ration Books:
Buff-coloured ration books - Most adults had this colour.
Green ration books - Pregnant women, nursing mothers and children under 5. They had first choice of fruit, a daily pint of milk and a double supply of eggs.
Blue ration books - Children between 5 and 16 years of age. It was felt important that children had fruit, the full meat ration and half a pint of milk a day.
It all happened so quickly. At 7.55am on Sunday 7 December 1941, the first of two waves of Japanese aircraft began their deadly attack on the US Pacific Fleet, moored at Pearl Harbour on the Pacific island of Oahu. Within two hours, five battleships had been sunk, another 16 damaged, and 188 aircraft destroyed. Only chance saved three US aircraft carriers, usually stationed at Pearl Harbour but assigned elsewhere on the day. The attacks killed under 100 Japanese but over 2,400 Americans, with another 1,178 injured.
Who was Anne Frank?
Anne Frank was an ordinary German Jewish girl. She enjoyed playing with her toys, riding her bike and going to the seaside
Why is Anne Frank Famous?
Anne Frank is well known because of her diary. It was first published as a book, in Dutch, in 1947. Since then, millions of people have read the thoughts and hopes of one young girl and have been inspired by them.
Why were Jews imprisoned and killed during World War Two ?
Hitler wanted to create what he saw was the perfect German, this meant that anyone who did not fit into his perfect image was persecuted (ill treated) and/or killed. Hitler persecuted German citizens who were Jewish, Gypsies, or otherwise "undesirables".
How many people were killed because of their religion?
By the end of World War II, six million Jews were killed because they were, in Hitler's eyes, 'different'.
What was life like for a Jew living in Germany?
Anne Frank and other Jews were forced to think they were lower and inadequate to everyone else just because they had a different religious belief.
June 12, 1929 - Anne Frank born in Frankfurt, Germany.
Her parents were Otto and Edith Frank
Anne Frank's sister was called Margot
Her father was an officer in the German army in World War I
1933 - Adolf Hitler's Nazi party come to power in GermanyHitler begins his campaign against the Jews
Anne Frank and her family move to Amsterdam 1933 where they hope to be safe from the Nazi Germans.
May, 1940 - the Germans invade the Netherlands
May 1942 - all Jews aged six and older are required to wear a yellow Star of David on their clothes to set them apart from non-Jews.
Jews are arrested just for being Jews.
June 14 1943 - Anne starts writing her diary
July 6, 1942 - Frank family go into hiding
August 4, 1944 - Their hiding place is discovered and they are arrested.
September 3, 1944 - Frank family are transported to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland.
October, 1944, Anne and Margot are transported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany.
March 1945 - Anne dies in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, from Typhus
Inside the Identity Card
Inside the identity card was the owner's name and address, including changes of address.
1943 was when they introduced for adults the blue identity card. Until then, adult identity cards had been brown, the same colour as children's cards.
The identity card below belonged to Doris Corri.
The sections in the card showing the change in address were important, as many people moved several times during the war. Why do you think they did move?
Doris moved house three times between 1943 and 1945. She went to stay with relatives in Yorkshire.
When did people stop carrying identity cards?
People had to carry identity cards where ever they went until seven years after the end of the war in 1952.
When did The Blackout begin?
Britain was blacked out on 1st September 1939, two days before the outbreak of war.
What was The Blackout?
During the war, everyone had to cover their windows and doors at night (before sunset) with heavy blackout curtains, cardboard or paint.
Why did people have to cover their windows and doors?
They needed to prevent any glimmer of light from escaping and aiding enemy aircraft during the bombing raids.
What about other sources of light during the blackout. Were they covered too?
Street lights were switched off or dimmed and shielded to deflect the light downward. Traffic lights and vehicle headlights were fitted with slotted covers to deflect the beam down to the floor.
By September 1939 some 38 million gas masks had been given out, house to house, to families. They were never to be needed.
Why were people given gas masks during the war?
Everyone in Britain was given a gas mask in a cardboard box, to protect them from gas bombs, which could be dropped during air raids.
What is evacuation?
Evacuation means leaving a place. During the Second World War, many children living in big cities and towns were moved temporarily from their homes to places considered safer, usually out in the countryside.
When did evacuations take place in Britain?
The British evacuation began on Friday 1 September 1939. It was called 'Operation Pied Piper'.
Between 1939 - 1945 there were three major evacuations in preparation of the German Luftwaffe bombing Britain.
When did evacuations take place in Britain?
The first official evacuations began on September 1 1939, two days before the declaration of war. By January 1940 almost 60% had returned to their homes.
A second evacuation effort was started after the Germans had taken over most of France. From June 13 to June 18, 1940, around 100,000 children were evacuated (in many cases re-evacuated).When the Blitz began on 7 September 1940, children who had returned home or had not been evacuated were evacuated. By the end of 1941, city centres, especially London, became safer.
From June 1944, the Germans attacked again by firing V1 rockets on Britain, followed later by also V2 rockets. 1,000,000 women, children, elderly and disabled people were evacuate from London.This new way of attacking Britain carried on until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.
The First World War had to be fought mainly on the ground. World War Two was a different kind of war as it was both on the ground and from the air.
Operation Sea lion
In July 1940, Hitler gave orders for the preparation of a sea born invasion of Britain, called Operation Sea lion. To make this easier, he sent the Luftwaffe (German air force) to destroy Britain's Royal Air Force first.
Why did the German air force attack?
German leaders felt it was essential to destroy the British air force to stop it sinking the ships that would carry German soldiers across the Channel.
What is known as the 'Battle of Britain'?
Battle of Britain is the name commonly given to the effort by the Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), before a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain during the Second World War. The Luftwaffe tried to destroy the Royal Air Force.
Between 1939-1944 the area of farmed land increased from nearly 13m acres to over 19m acres. The output of food increased by well over 70% in the United Kingdom.
In East Yorkshire during this period, the area devoted to potato fields doubled. The number of dairy cows increased by 20%, the need for self sufficiency became priority.
RAF Carnaby was an emergency landing ground, situated 2 miles SW of Bridlington. Opening in March 1944 Carnaby was an emergency landing ground for Bomber Command to enable crippled bombers a safe place to land near the coast. Unlike most RAF airfield there was a single runway, five times the width of a standard runway and 9,000 feet long, lying east-west to enable bombers crossing the coast an easier landing. Over 1400 bombers made an emergency landing at Carnaby.
It was one of fifteen airfields operating the fog dispersal system known as FIDO (Fog Investigation Dispersal Organisation). The system consisted of two rows of burning petrol one on each side of the runway, the heat from this fire raised teh air temperature above the runways, cutting a hole in the fog and provided crews with a brightly lit strip indicating the position iof the runway. Using FIDO for one hour required 250,000 gallons of fuel at a cost of £42,500.
RAF Carnaby closed in 1946